Module 11 Study

  1. Axial skeleton
    The portion of a skeleton that supports and protects the head,neck,and trunk
  2. Appendicular skeleton
    The portion of the skeleton that attaches to the axial skeleton and has the limbs attached to it
  3. Exoskeleton
    A body covering, typically made of a tough, flexible substance called chitin, that provides support and protection
  4. Symbiosis
    Two or more different organisms living together so that each benefits from the other
  5. What three things make up the human superstructure?
    The skeleton, the muscles, and the skin.
  6. What are the two main differences between smooth muscles and skeletal muscles?
    • Smooth muscles are smooth and unstriped while skeletal muscles are rough and striped.
    • Skeletal muscles are voluntary and smooth muscles are involuntary.
  7. Where is the cardiac muscle found? Is it an involuntary or a voluntary one?
    The cardiac muscle is in the heart. It is an involuntary muscle.
  8. What is produced in the bone marrow?
    Blood cells.
  9. What is keratinization? What is it used for?
    Keratinization is a process that hardens living cells. It is used to make the outer layer of the epidermis, as well as hair and nails.
  10. What two principle substances make up bone? What qualities do they each provide to the bone?
    Bones are made up of collagen and minerals. The collagen makes the bone flexible, while the minerals make them hard and strong.
  11. What is the difference between compact bone tissue and spongy bone tissue?
    spongy bone tissue is lighter then compact bone tissue.
  12. Are bones alive?
    bones are alive
  13. What is the difference between an invertebrate and a vertebrate? Is it possible to be neither?
    Vertebrates are animals with backbones. Invertebrates are animals without backbones. It is possible to be neither.
  14. Are you arms part of the appendicular  skeleton or the axial skeleton? What about your neck?
    The arms are parts of the appendicular skeleton, but the neck is part of the axial skeleton.
  15. What is the difference between an endoskeleton and an exoskeleton? what do we call animals with exoskeletons?
    An exoskeleton is a support structure that exists on the outside of an organism, while an endoskeleton is on the inside of the organism.Creatures with exoskeletons are called arthropods.
  16. Order the following joints in terms of increasing range of motion. Then order them in terms of increasing stability.
    • hinge,saddle,ball-and-socket.
    • ball-and-socket, saddle, hinge.
  17. What purpose do ligaments serve in the joints? What about cartilage?
    Ligaments tend to hold the bones of the joints together. Cartilage cushions the bones of the joints so that they do not rub painfully against each other.
  18. How do skeletal muscles attach to the skeleton?
    Skeletal muscles end in tendons, and the tendons attach to the skeleton.
  19. Describe how the biceps and triceps work together to move the forearm.
    To raise the forearm, the biceps contracts while the triceps relaxes. To extend the forearm, the biceps relaxes and the triceps contracts.
  20. Is the stomach composed of smooth muscle or skeletal muscle?
    Smooth muscle
  21. A sunflower will actually turn throughout the day so that it follows the sun across the sky. What is the term we use to describe this?
  22. What are the two main functions of a hair?
    Insulation and sensation.
  23. What are the two main functions of sweat
    cools the body down and also provides food for the beneficial bacteria and fungi which live on your skin.
  24. Why do your skin cells constantly fall off your body?
    because the cells on the outer layer are dead.
  25. What do the sebaceous glands produce, and what are the substance's two main purposes?
    oil, the oil softens the skin and hair also makes it hard for certain bacteria to attach themselves to your skin.
  26. For the following animals, classify each as mammal, bird, reptile, or amphibian.

    a. The animal has hair.
    b. The animal breathes through it's skin.
    c. The animal has scales.
    d. The animal has feathers.
    • a. Mammal
    • b. Amphibian
    • c. Reptile
    • d. Bird
Card Set
Module 11 Study
Hard Science