The mammalian nervous system

  1. Every time we hold a memory, the synapses that hold that memory becomes _____ and _____ a little differently
    • labile
    • reset
  2. While the synapses are labile (__hr period), drugs can be introduced that can erase that memory. After the ___hr period they become fixed, this is called _____ ____ ____
    • 24hr
    • 24hr
    • selective memory erasing
  3. The selective memory erasing drugs can be useful for PTSD patients if they restrict its application to the ______
    amygdala
  4. Our ability to locate _____ sensation is greater than our ability to locate _____ sensation
    • somatic sensation 
    • visceral sensation (more delocalized)
  5. ________ response is colloquially referred to as the rest and digest response while the ________ response is referred to as the fight or flight response
    • parasympathetic
    • sympathetic
  6. Parasympathetic neurons are activated in the _____ and _____ region while sympathetic neurons are activated in the ______ and ______ region
    • brainstem & sacral 
    • thoracic & lumbar
  7. All preganglionic motor neurons release ____, whether they are sympathetic or parasympathetic
    Ach
  8. Dendrites of postganglionic neurons have _______ receptors
    nicotinic
  9. Dendrites of postgang neurons having nicotinic receptors means? 3 step ministory
    • Ach will bind
    • the ion channel will open
    • Na+ will come in
  10. If it is a sympathetic neuron, the terminal of the postgang neuron would release _______
    norepinephrine
  11. Autonomic motor neuron story:
    Sympathetic response (going for a run) 7
    • Brain would have its preganglionic neuron on the lateral horn of the thoracic or lumbar region of the spinal cord
    • Brain sends descending pathways to its dendrites and spatial and temporal summations that will cause a preganglionic neuron (*most are myelinated) to fire an action potential
    • Preganglionic neuron would fire an action potential & release ACh which will all then travel to what we call an autonomic ganglion specifically a sympathetic ganglion
    • The sympathetic ganglion will then activate the postganglionic neuron (*unmyelinated) by releasing ACh to the postgang's nicotinic receptors
    • The postganglionic neuron will then fire action potential and release norepinephrine
    • The norepinephrine will activate the effectors (muscles and glands) by acting on their noradrenergic receptors (G-protien cpld)
    • So, for example, it would use Gs signaling to speed up the heart rate
  12. Autonomic motor neuron story:
    Parasympathetic response (chillini & knockin back brews on the beach) 8
    • Brain would have its preganglionic neuron on the brainstem and the sacral region of spinal cord
    • Brain sends descending pathways to its dendrites and spatial and temporal summations that will cause a preganglionic neuron (*most are myelinated) to fire an action potential
    • Preganglionic neuron would fire an action potential and release ACh which will all travel to an autonomic ganglion specifically a parasympathetic ganglion
    • The parasympathetic ganglion will then activate the postganglionic neuron (*unmyelinated) by releasing ACh to the postgang's nicotinic receptors
    • The postganglionic neuron will then fire action potential and release ACh
    • ACh will go to the effector organs (muscles and glands)
    • The effector organ's receptors would be muscarinic (g-protein cpld)
    • So, for example, it would use Gi signaling to slow down the heart rate
  13. Methamphetamine is a stimulant so it would activate a ______ response
    sympathetic
  14. _____ _____ are blocking noradrenergic receptors which will tilt processing away from sympathetic response toward _______ response. For example slowing down the heart rate
    • beta blockers
    • parasympathetic
  15. Autonomic motor neuron story:
    Really strong sympathetic response story 
    (Bear attack) (cheat sheet for amn stories on pg 18)
    • Stronger sympathetic stimuli will trigger more potent cascade than otherwise
    • The preganglionic neuron will release ACh and fire action potentials, all of this will skip the sympathetic trunk ganglion and go straight to the adrenal gland
    • Adrenal gland's medulla will receive and release Ach to "honorary postgang cells" chromaffin cells NOT the same as the usual postgang cells
    • Chromaffin cells (adrenal medulla cells) have nicotinic receptors so they receive the Ach, then depolarize and release norep. & ep.
    • The norep. & and ep. are released to a capillary system and that is released to the blood stream/goes everywhere and that is what we recognize as an adrenaline rush
  16. Skeletal muscles have _____ receptors for ______
    • nicotinic 
    • Ach
  17. Nerve:

    Tract:
    a bundle of axons that carry info in the PNS

    a bundle of axons that carry info in the CNS
  18. Telencephalon becomes the _______, the diencephalon becomes _____, _____, & _____ and the mesencephalon becomes _____
    • Cerebral cortex (cerebrum)
    • thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus
    • midbrain
  19. Which thalmic nuclei are the 1st step on the pathway for sensory inputs for example if we pinched ourselves? After that the input will head to the ______
    • ventral postero-lateral 
    • cortex
  20. The spinal cord's _____ matter has myelinated axons while its ______ matter does not
    • white 
    • gray
  21. Gray matter has (3)
    • interneurons 
    • cell bodies 
    • dendrites
  22. All sensory neurons are found _____ except ______
    • outside the CNS
    • except for hypothalmic neurons
  23. All sensory neurons release ______, while all motor neurons release _______.
    • glutamate
    • Ach
  24. Spinal cord mini story:
    Motor pathway (3)
    • Brain thinks something and needs to send it down tracts
    • Info will eventually make its way to a somatic motor neuron (in the ventral horn) which will fire an action potential
    • Action potential will leave as a nerve and we will get a contraction
  25. Spinal cord mini story:
    Sensory pathway (4)
    • If we pinch ourselves it will move up the unipolar (pseudounipolar neurons) to the dorsal root ganglion
    • Dorsal root gang will release glutamate to a sensory interneuron
    • Sensory interneuron (now activated) will run through a tract that goes to the brain
    • The brain interprets the pinch as a squeezing sensation
  26. Spinal cord ministory: (NEEDS FURTHER WORK)
    Knee jerk reflex (4)
    • We have sensory neurons that can detect the stretch of muscles
    • Sensory neurons fire action potential
    • Dorsal root ganglion releases glutamate to a sensory interneuron & motor neuron (inhibitory spinal interneuron)
    • Motor neuron releases ACh and muscle contraction ensues (front muscle of leg extends while the back muscles shorten)
  27. Midbrain is involved in visual reflexes in the ______ colliculus & auditory reflexes in the ______ colliculus
    • superior colliculus
    • inferior colliculus
  28. Midbrain uses ______ ______ to control our level of arousal (awareness of stimuli around us, sleep/not paying attention vs awake/ paying attention)
    reticular formation
  29. Brainstem consists of
    • midbrain 
    • pons
    • medulla
  30. Name the receptors for glutamate
    Are they ionotropic or g-protein coupled
    • Kainate
    • AMPA
    • NMDA

    Ionotropic
  31. Glutamate release will cause ____ and if they summate, we will have an action potential
    EPSPs
  32. Inhibitory interneurons release ____ & _____.
    • glycine 
    • GABA
  33. Glycine is g-protein coupled making it ________
    metabotropic
  34. Working memory (short term memory) is stored and converted into long term memory in the _______. It is then transferred from the ______ to the _____
    • hippocampus
    • hippocampus 
    • cortex
  35. The site of all fear memories is the ______. What structures feed into it? (2)
    • amygdala
    • thalamus & cortex
  36. The output of the amygdala would be the ____
    ANS
  37. Patient SM's amygdala ______ ______ and became inactive so all the neurons in it were dead. She was only capable of experiencing fear intellectually.
    calcified bilaterally
  38. Corpus callosum is _____ matter & its axons track from one hemisphere of the brain to another. Those _______ tracts are basically the only way one side of the brain can _______ with the other
    • white 
    • commissural 
    • communicate
  39. Why is basal ganglia a misnomer?
    they are a collection of cell bodies in the CNS should be called basal nuclei
  40. Basal ganglia:
    State their job 
    State the 3 parts that make it up 
    Name a disease that rises from their damage
    • Smooth coordinated movements
    • caudate, globus pallidus & putamen
    • Parkinson's disease
  41. Why could patient HM & SM continue to develop their motor skills and muscle memory?
    Their cerebellum was still intact, that is where we do motor skill/ motor memory
  42. The only sense that doesn't go to the thalamus is _____. It goes straight to the _____.
    • smell
    • cortex
  43. Name 4 structures that play a role in movement
    • cerebellum
    • lower motor neurons
    • primary motor cortex
    • basal ganglia
  44. _____ & _____ input into the primary motor cortex.  _______ is in charge of the endocrine system
    • Cerebellum & basal ganglia
    • Hypothalamus
  45. Name 4 endocrine nuclei to know in the hypothalamus:
    • paraventricular arcuate 
    • anterior & posterior hypothalmic nuclei (thermosensation)
  46. Temporal lobe has to do with _____ & forming ______.  Frontal lobe has to do with ______ & ______ _____. Primary motor cortex does ALL ______ motion. Slide 62 is a map of what gets the most cortex
    • hearing & forming sounds
    • personality & working memory
    • voluntary motion
  47. Why is the parietal lobe thought of as sensory?
    contains somatosensory cortex
  48. The act of hearing words would be in the ______ cortex of the _____ lobe. The act of reading would start in the _____ ____ cortex of the _____ lobe.
    • auditory cortex of the temporal lobe
    • primary visual cortex of the occipital lobe
  49. Wernicke's area is responsible for ordering _____ in a sensible and coherent manner. The actual motor portion of speech like moving lips etc is done by?
    • speech
    • Broca's area
Author
chikeokjr
ID
325058
Card Set
The mammalian nervous system
Description
Week 4 audio breakdown
Updated