SOC 100 midterm 2

  1. intersectionality
    power relations connected with other patterns of inequality (gender, race, sexuality, ethnicity)
  2. stratification
    • society is composed of layers
    • hierarchical arrangement of individuals based on wealth, power, prestige
    • but there's not just one cake
  3. privilage
    advantages given to members of certain groups
  4. psychological wage
    ex. for white workers, they got additional "wage" by being able to feel superior over black people
  5. social mobility
    • movement within a stratified social system where boundries between social strata are not rigid
    • you can move between classes or occupational groups
  6. most important factor behind academic achievement?
    familial expectations
  7. ascribed status
    assigned at birth and includes race, gender, disability, age
  8. achieved status
    earned over your life course
  9. meritocracy
    a system based upon achieved status
  10. How did Marx view social stratification?
    • society best characterized by conflict
    • capitalism split bw two central classes
    • bourgeoisise: control means of production
    • proletariat: only have labour to sell
    • conflict between these two groups becomes inevitable as inequality becomes more pronounced
  11. class consciousness
    • awareness of worker's shared interests and ability to act in those interests 
    • people need to recognize themselves as part of a class before they can fight for it
  12. Structural functionalist (Durkheim) views on social stratification?
    • early societies held together by mechanical solidarity
    • as division of labour became more complex, organic solidarity becomes evident
    • no one can survive each other
    • society differentiates into interdependent parts (organs)
  13. symbolic interactionist perspective on social stratification
    • focus is on how inequality is represented and interpreted
    • how do we represent our wealth? status symbols
  14. conspicuous consumption
    purchasing expensive goods and services in order to put them on display
  15. absolute poverty
    ppl lack the basic necessities of life (food, clothing, shelter)
  16. relative poverty
    people are poor relative to the average canadian
  17. structural factors causing homelessness
    • low income
    • shortage of affordable housing
    • economic shifts
    • experience of discrimination
  18. individual and relational factors causing homelessness
    • personal circumstances
    • traumatic events
    • personal crisis
    • mental health and addictions challenges
  19. three statistical measures of poverty in canada
    • low income cutoff point (LICO)
    • market basket measure (MBM)
    • low income measure (LIM)
  20. feminist explanations for social stratification
    • little recognition of women in class analysis in the past
    • gender intersects w social class (ex. unpaid labour in the home "second shift")
  21. groups most likely to be economically marginalized
    • women
    • aboriginal people
    • new immigrants and visible minorities
    • people living with disability
  22. the idea that all people have equal opportunity to achieve economic success ignores what things?
    • institutional arrangements
    • legislative barriers (welfare requirements, minimum wage)
  23. poverty-reducing attempts in legislation that resulted from social activism during the great depression?
    • old age pensions act
    • unemployment insurance
    • family allowance act
  24. poverty-aiding policies paid for by _____
    • progressive income taxes 
    • generally taxed wealthy more than others
    • this generally reversed through the 80s and 90s
  25. current policies to prevent/reduce poverty in canada
    • benefits for seniors
    • social assistance
    • employment benefits
    • child and family benefits
  26. why is polarizing increasing according to thomas piketty?
    • rate of return on investment > growth of economy
    • if you have a lot of money and you can invest it, the return will get you more money than if you were just relying on wage alone 
    • people with the most money are getting the biggest returns and pulling away from the rest of us
  27. big gap between richest and poorest can result in _____
    • social unrest/resentment
    • political instability
  28. indicators of inequality
    education and occupation
  29. heteronormativity
    many aspects of our lives built on the assumption that "normal" people are cisgendered (gender expression matches assigned sex) and heterosexual
  30. Dorothy Smith raised gender as an issue of ______
    exclusion, isolation, invisibility
  31. Foucault's view of gender and sexuality as vantage points?
    • philosophy of the outside
    • value of marginal social positions to provide a critical outsider perspective for viewing social interaction
  32. gender as a social construction
    what it means to be a man/woman, boy/girl
  33. sexuality as a social construction
    normal/abnormal kinds of sexuality (hetero/homosexuality, fetishes, paedophelia, etc)
  34. essentialism
    • idea that people have cores or essences that are natural, normal, inevitable
    • many ppl believe that masculinity and femininity are essences that all people possess
  35. gender expression
    performative sense, what you do
  36. gender identity
    what you identify as
  37. functionalism in gender and sexuality
    • often characterized as a conservative approach
    • often ends up confirming the status quo as the way it should be
  38. what did functionalists in the 70s and 80s argue in regards to gender and sexuality?
    • males possess instrumental character traits (rationality, goal achievement)
    • females display expressive character traits (emotional communication, interaction with others)
  39. gender inequality compounded by _________
    interlocking/intersectional variables (racialization, immigrant status, ethnic inequalities)
  40. can't talk about inequality without talking about ________
  41. negotiation divide
    • men socialized to be more assertive
    • women socialized to diffuse conflict
    • men tend to get more promotions/raises because they will more often ask for them, while women won't
  42. hegemonic masculinity
    • dominant form of masculinity in society that says men should be strong, aggressive, self-relient, free from traditional feminine characteristics
    • is this still the dominant form?
  43. ethnicity
    social distinctions and relations among individuals and groups based upon their cultural characteristics
  44. race
    people's assumed but socially significant physical or genetic characteristics
  45. reminder: structural functionalism - how would a structural functionalist view race/ethnicities?
    • every facet of society has a particular function
    • they all work together to allow society to function
    • helping different racial and ethnic groups integrate into a new society
  46. symbolic interactionism: perspective on race/ethnicity?
    • what does it mean to be part of these different groups
    • how does being part of these different groups shape our identity
    • our identity can be shaped by interacting with other groups
  47. what did Max Weber think of ethnicity and race?
    • thought ethnicity was more subjective, presumed identity based on "folk-feeling"
    • not necessarily blood-ties
    • similarity/contrast can induce a "consciousness of kind"
  48. monopolistic closure
    economic, political, social processes where members of the in-group have access to scarce resources and outsiders don't
  49. racialization
    • set of social processes and practices through which social relations among people are structured by the significance of different human biological characteristics
    • define and construct differentiated social collectives
  50. race
    • way of categorizing human populations
    • came out of european colonization, exploitation, domination of indigenous populations
  51. colonialism
    • "extension of civilization"
    • control over a dependent country, territory or people
  52. early colonialism
    • 1700s
    • nation-to-nation relationships bw the Crown and First Nations
    • focus on trade and military alliances
  53. transition to settler colonialism
    • land became most important
    • 1800s: aboriginal groups increasingly desperate and facing existential challenges due to impacts of white settlement
  54. "civilization" of canada
    • christian values
    • agricultural way of life 
    • purpose: management and control
  55. residential schools as part of a regime of _____ and _________
    • control
    • resocialization (total institution)
  56. charter groups
    french and english
  57. original "entrance groups" immigration to Canada
    • immigrated to Canada under the rules of charter groups
    • screened intensely
    • mostly white europeans
  58. recent canadian immigration trends?
    • a lot less white
    • top source countries are Philippines, India, China
  59. 4 major classes of immigrants?
    • skilled workers
    • family class
    • refugees
    • business immigrants
  60. vertical mosaic
    • Porter
    • classic in subdiscipline of race and ethnic relations
    • ethnic affiliation important determinant of social class status
  61. colour coded mosaic
    • racialized vertical mosaic
    • whites on top, non-whites on bottom
  62. multiple dimensions of multiculturalism
    • demographic reality
    • pluralist ideology
    • struggle bw diff groups for access to resources
    • set of govt policies and programs
  63. criticisms of multiculturalism
    • not successful at integrating members of society
    • too much emphasized on the symbolic displays, not the issues
    • false impression of dealing with real inequality
    • focuses only on cultural barriers, not racial/discriminating barriers
  64. culturalism
    • suggests culture causes ethnic and racial inequality
    • values affect the psychological composition of group members
  65. political economy
    suggests socially created groups are affected by social structures that impede freedom
  66. racism
    • based on "othering"
    • often begin as labour problems
  67. prejudice
    negative views of and attitudes about members of various minority groups
  68. discrimination
    • practices that affect certain social groups 
    • reproducing inequalities and stereotypes
  69. democratic racism
    • police face of racism
    • talk of multiculturalism and reasonable accomodation serves to mask continuing inequalities
  70. discourse of denial
    • racism doesn't exist in canada
    • canadians are tolerant
    • "I'm not racist but...."
  71. the concepts of race and ethnicity are _______
    durable and persistent
  72. people seek ______ in their work
    • meaning
    • more than just income
  73. the wider economy
    • social institution where people carry out production, distribution, consumption of goods and services
    • economy and our location in it afffect the quality of healthcare, housing, diet, nutrition, overall quality of life
  74. capitalism
    • Marx
    • system based on private ownership of the means of production
    • has ability to grow, distribute, doesn't need a central planner 
    • system of unequal exchange (proletariat vs. bourgeoisie)
  75. goal of capitalism?
    • profit
    • so work is structured in the most efficient way
    • workers are paid as little as possible and capitalists try to extract the most amount of work possible
  76. family capitalism
    • mid to late 1800s
    • a few families controlled most of the country's wealth (owned businesses)
    • their accumulated wealth was passed on to their children
  77. charter companies
    • people who approached the Crown and asked to be able to go out and do stuff
    • like exploit North America for furs
  78. big legal thing tied to the creation of modern capitalism?
    • limited liability
    • corporation is a seperate legal entity to the owners
    • so people are more willing to invest because there is less risk tied to them
  79. are corporations people?
    • in canada, yes!
    • "legal persons"
    • can't vote, can contribute to political stuff
  80. corporations: global context
    • "transnational" or "multinational" corporations
    • move beyond traditional boundaries to secure cheapest labour, lowest infrastructure costs, and permissive regulation
    • "race to the bottom"
  81. primary resource industry
    involve extraction of natural resources
  82. social reproduction
    • work we don't usually think of as part of the economy
    • reproducing our labour power
    • raising children, support systems that support wives, daycare so parents can go to work
    • most of this work doesn't pay
  83. the informal economy
    • side jobs and illegal stuff
    • babysitting, peddling, street drugs, busking
  84. knowledge economy/information society
    • new technology allowing for new kinds of jobs that weren't available before
    • bloggers, youtubers, work at home
  85. the sharing economy
    • commons-based peer production
    • more exploitative form of capitalism?
    • workers more marginalized
    • all about customers
    • not everyone can take advantage of these opportunites, reinforces inequalities
  86. numerical flexibility
    shrink/eliminate core workforce and replace them with workers in non-standard work
  87. non-standard work
    • employment arrangements
    • ex. temp work
    • fastest growing type of employment in Canada
  88. youth work
    lots of young people right now overqualified for the work they have
  89. ______ of all employees in canada are unionized
    ~ 1/3
  90. have to remember ______ when talking about the ups and downs of rates of unionized ppl
    • intersectionality
    • men vs women?
Card Set
SOC 100 midterm 2
lectures 6, 7, 8, 11