PSYB10-Chapter 4

  1. pluralistic ignorance
    misperception of a group norm that results from observing people who are acting at variance with their private beliefs out of a concern for the social consequences; those actions reinforce the erroneous group norm
  2. self-fulfilling prophecy
    the tendency for people to act in ways that bring about the very thing they expect to happen
  3. primary effect
    a type of order effect: the disproportionate influence on judgement by information presented first in a body of evidence
  4. recency effect
    a type of order effect: the disproportionate influence on judgement by information presented last in a body of evidence
  5. framing effect
    the influence on judgement resulting from the way information is presented, such as the order of presentation or the wording
  6. construal level theory
    a theory about the relationship between psychological distance and abstract or concrete thinking: psychologically distant actions and events are thought about in abstract terms; actions and events that are close at hand are thought about in concrete terms
  7. confirmation bias
    the tendency to test a proposition by searching for evidence that would support it
  8. bottom-up processes
    "data driven" mental processing in which an individual forms conclusions based on the stimuli encountered in the environment
  9. top-bottom processes
    "theory-driven" mental processing, in which an individual filters and interprets new information in light of preexisting knowledge and expectations
  10. encoding
    filing information away in memory based on what information is attended to and the initial interpretation of the information
  11. retrieval
    the extraction of information from memory
  12. priming
    the presentation of information designed to activate a concept and hence make it accessible. A prime is the stimulus presented to activate the concept in question
  13. subliminal stimulus
    a stimulus that is below the threshold of conscious awareness
  14. heuristics
    intuitive mental operations, performed quickly and automatically, that provide efficient answers to common problems of judgment
  15. availability heuristic
    the process whereby judgements of frequency or probability are based on how readily pertinent instances come to mind
  16. representativeness heuristic
    the process whereby judgments of likelihood are based on assessments of similarity between individuals and group prototypes, or between cause and effect
  17. fluency
    the feeling of ease (or difficulty) associated with processing information
  18. base-rate information
    information about the relative frequency of events or of members of different categories in a population
  19. regression fallacy
    the failure to recognize the influence of the regression effect and to offer a causal theory for what is really a simple statistical regularity
  20. regression effect
    the statistical tendency, when two variables are imperfectly correlated, for extreme values on one of them to be associated with less extreme values on the other
  21. planning fallacy
    the tendency for people to be unrealistically optimistic about how quickly they can complete a particular project, even when fully aware that they have often failed to complete similar projects on time in te past
Card Set
PSYB10-Chapter 4