PSYB10 - chapter 2

  1. hindsight bias
    the tendency to believe that you could have predicted some outcome which in fact you couldn't have predicted accurately
  2. hypoethsis
    is a prediction about what will happen under particular circumstances
  3. theory
    a body of related propositions intended to describe some aspect of the world
  4. correlational research
    research that does not involve random assignment to different situations, or conditions, and that psychologists conduct to determine whether there is a relationship between the variables
  5. experimental research
    in social psychology, research that randomly assigns people to different conditions, or situations and that enables researchers to make strong inferences about how these different conditions affect behaviour
  6. self selection
    in correlational research, a problem that arises when the participant, rather than the researcher, selects his or her level on each variable, bringing with this value unknown other properties that make causal interpretation of a relationship difficult
  7. random assignment
    assigning participants in experimental research to different groups randomly, so they are as likely to be assigned to one condition to another
  8. control condition
    a condition comparable to the experimental condition in every way except that it lacks the one ingredient hypothesized to produce the expected effect on the dependent variable
  9. natural experiment
    a naturally occurring event or phenomenon having somewhat different conditions that can be compared with almost as much rigor as in experiments where the investigator manipulates the conditions
  10. external validity
    an indication of how well the results of a study generalize to contexts besides those of the study itself
  11. field experiment
    takes place in the real world, usually with participants who are unaware they are involved i a research study at all
  12. internal validity
    requires that only the manipulated variable could have produced the results
  13. debriefing
    may involve directly asking participants whether they understand the instructions and whether they find the setup to be reasonable
  14. reliability
    refers to the degree to which a measure gives the same result on repeated occasions, or the degree to which two measuring instruments
  15. measurement validity
    refers to the correlation between some measure and some outcome the measure is supposed to predict
  16. regression to the mean
    the tendency for extreme scores to be followed by, or to accompany, less extreme scores
  17. statistical significance
    a measure of the probability a given result could have occurred by chance
  18. basic science
    is concerned with trying to understand some phenomenon in its own right, rather than using finding to solve a particular real-world problem
  19. applied science
    is concerned with solving a real-world problem of importance
  20. replication
    the reproducing of research results by the original investigator or by someone else
  21. institutional review board (IRB)
    a committee that examines research proposals and makes judgments about their ethical appropriateness
  22. informed consent
    their agreement to participate in light of their knowledge about all relevant aspects of the procedure
  23. deception research
    research in which the participants are misled about the purposed of the research or the meaning of something that is done by them
Card Set
PSYB10 - chapter 2