Finishing and polishing

  1. Finishing and polishing leaves a surface finish that
    • Reduces adhesion
    • Feels smooth
    • Is non-irritating to the oral tissues
    • Is more resistant to corrosion
  2. Abrasion is
    Wearing away of a surface or removal of material by rubbing, cutting, or scraping; a.k.a. grinding
  3. The object/instrument or material that does the abrading is the
  4. The surface being cut is the
  5. Finishing is
    • The process of producing the final shape and contour of a restoration
    • Also removes deep, obvious surface blemishes
  6. What materials are used of for finishing
    burs and stones
  7. Polishing is
    • an abrasive process creating a smooth, reflective surface by reducing the size of the surface scratches until they are so fine you can not see them without great magnification.
    • Leaves a lustrous and shiny surface
  8. Finishing and polishing use the same action of ________ of the surface
    cutting or abrasion
  9. Hardness is
    resistance of material to indentation  Resistance to being scratched
  10. Hardness test is measured by
  11. The larger the cutting particle _____
    the faster and deeper the scratches (abrasion)
  12. Grit
    used to describe the size of the cutting particle
  13. Spherically shaped particles are _____ than irregularly shaped particles
    less abrasive
  14. What are the factors Affecting the Abrasion Process
    • Hardness
    • Size
    • Shape
    • Pressure
    • Speed
    • Lubrication
  15. What is the purpose of the lubrication
    • Removes debris and cools the heat generated by process.
    • The most common lubricant is water
  16. What instruments and Materials are used to Finish and Polish
    • diamonds
    • Carbides
    • Aluminum oxide
    • Pumice
    • Tripoli
    • Rouge
  17. What are the features of the diamonds
    • Composed of carbon, known as the superabrasive
    • Hardest known substance
  18. What are the two carbides
    • 1. Tungsten carbide makes up burs used in handpieces for tooth preparation and lab work
    • 2. Silicon carbide (first synthetic abrasive)- used in “green stones”.
  19. first synthetic abrasive was
    Silicon carbide
  20. What are the features of aluminum oxide
    • Widely used in the form of discs and strips.
    • Also impregnated into rubber wheels and points.
    • Can be used in polishing pastes.
    • It is the abrasive used in the popular “white stones” to adjust enamel or to finish metal alloys and ceramic materials
  21. Most common abrasive used in commercially prepared prophylaxis polishing pastes is
  22. What are the features of Pumice
    • a silica like volcanic glass used on enamel, amalgam, gold foil (if you can find one) and finishing acrylic denture bases in the lab
    • Used to remove callused skin in “pumice stones
  23. Tripoli is ______ and used in conjunction with ______ which is _______
    • Made into bars and used on rag wheel for polishing metal alloys/gold
    • Rouge
    • Iron oxide made into bars and also used on a rag wheel for final polishing of gold alloys
  24. What material is really great for polishing amalgams
    Silex and Tin Oxide
  25. What is the function of the prophy paste
    Remove surface stains, leave as smooth a surface on natural tooth as possible after prophylaxis
  26. What are the characteristics of prophy paste
    • Polishing ability – should not create deep scratches and grooves. Leave very fine scratches and grooves that reflect light leaving a shine on the tooth surface
    • Abrasive Properties – ideal is to have a high polish rate combined with low abrasion rate. Must remove the stain without causing damage
    • therapeutics (fluoride, desensitizers)
  27. Dentin abrades ______ than enamel
    25x faster
  28. cementum abrades ______ than enamel
    35x faster
  29. The original powder of air powder polish is
    Original powder is Sodium Bicarbonate mixed with tiny amounts of calcium phosphate and silica to keep powder from clogging up the spray nozzle
  30. The Mohs number to air powder polishing is ______ which is safe for _______but NOT for _______
    • 2.5
    • amalgam, gold, implants
    • sealants, tooth colored restoratives (composites), or glass ionomers, or any ceramic restoration due to the glaze
  31. First alternative air polishing powder to sodium bicarbonate is ______ with a Mohs number of ______
    • Aluminum Trihydroxide
    • 4
  32. What are the features of Aluminum Trihydroxide
    • developed for patients not able to tolerate sodium bicarbonate
    • Used on heavily stained enamel
    • Not to be used on dentin, cementum, gold, amalgam, any composite, glass ionomers and implants
  33. What are the contraindications to Air Polishing
    • Sodium restricted diets
    • Respiratory diseases
    • Swallowing or breathing limitations (COPD)Communicable infections
    • Compromised immune system
    • Patients taking potassium, antidiuretics, steroid therapy
  34. The Most important component of a dentifrice/toothpaste is the
  35. Dentifrices are very closely monitored by ADA standards using the ______ which is ______
    • RDA Index (Radioactive Dentin Abrasion)
    • a standardized method for determining the abrasivity of toothpaste
  36. Abrasive power of the paste is affected by ________ which is _____ and ______ which is _______
    • Intraoral factors
    • xerostomia, salivary consistency and quantity, exposed root surfaces, quality and quantity of deposits, and presence of certain restorative
    • Extraoral factors
    • the type, size and amount of abrasive in the dentifrice, the quantity of dentifrice used, type of tooth brush used,method of use, amount of force used with brushing, and frequency of brushing
  37. What are the standard Ingredients of Tooth Pastes
    • Abrasives
    • Detergents
    • Humectants
    • Preservatives
  38. What are abrasives and what are the kinds
    • remove plaque and stain from teeth. Variety of strengths
    • Carbonates and silicas
  39. What are detergents and what are the kinds
    • Causes foaming and lifting of surface deposits
    • Sodium lauryl sulfate. Can also cause desquamation of oral mucosa and increased incidence of apthous ulcers
  40. What are humectants and what are the kinds
    • Help to maintain moisture content of paste
    • Glycerine, sorbitol, or xylitol
  41. What are preservatives and what are the kinds
    • Prevent the growth of microbes in the paste
    • Methyl paraben or Sodium benzoate
  42. What are the therapeutics Added to Pastes
    • Fluoride
    • Desensitizing Agents
    • Antitartar Agents
    • Remineralizing Agents
  43. What are the kinds of fluoride added to dentifrice
    Stannous fluoride, sodium monophosphate, sodium fluoride. Be careful – stannous fluoride can “etch” the glaze on all ceramic restorations
  44. What are desensitizing agents and what are the types
    • Reduce dentinal hypersensitivity
    • Potassium nitrate – example Sensodyne
  45. What are antitartar agents and what are the types
    • Decrease calculus build-up
    • Tetrapotassium pyrophosphate, disodium pyrophosphate
  46. What are remineralizing agents and what are the types
    • Soluble calcium phosphate that helps prevent caries and reduce enamel and dentinal erosion.
    • Amorphous calcium phosphate
  47. ______ is the main constituent of several brands of denture cleanser which should not be used with _______
    • Dilute sodium hypochlorite (i.e. mild bleach)
    • partials or any metal containing prosthesis
  48. What are the finishing procedures for composites
    • Final contour and finishing with mild diamonds or multifluted carbide burs
    • Finish with polishing pastes impregnated with very fine particles of aluminum oxide or diamond
  49. What are the finishing procedures of amalgams
    • At placement, the material is “finished” down with carvers and “polished” with burnishers
    • After 24 hours, can use stones and multifluted carbide burs to finish. Always with water coolant to protect pulp and keep Hg vapor down
    • Then brown and green rubber points.
    • Tin oxide as final polishing agent
  50. Kindest surface to place against tissue is
    glazed and fired porcelain
  51. Acrylics are mostly finished with
    • lathe.
    • Pumice / tripoli / tin oxide
Card Set
Finishing and polishing
Finishing and polishing