chapter 1 - psyc39

  1. just-world hypothesis
    may believe that the burglar deserved a severe penalty and that the victims did not protect their property sufficiently
  2. theory verification
    in any scientific theory must be precise as possible, their meaning and usage clear and unambiguous, so that it ca be meaningfully tested by observations and analysis
  3. falsification
    when the theory is not verified
  4. model
    a graphic representation of a theory or a concept, designed to enhance its understanding
  5. classical theory (today is known as deterrence theory)
    basically if they input severe punishments towards those who do illegal acts, people would stop doing those illegal acts ( no matter what race, class, or how privileged they are) due to the fact that its based off of free will
  6. positivist theory
    idea of determinism - result of social, psychological, and even biological influences
  7. there are 3 theories of crime that underlines assumptions upon human nature
    • strain theory
    • social control theory
    • general theory of crime
  8. strain theory
    argued that humans are fundamentally conforming beings, who are strongly influenced by the values and attitudes of the society in which they live in
  9. social control theory
    contends that crime and delinquency occur when an individual's ties to the conventional order or normative standards are weak or largely nonexistent
  10. general theory of crime ( also referred to as Self-control theory (SCT))
    • suggests that a deficit or self-control or self-regulation is the key factor in explaining crime and delinquency
    • self-control is a stable trait that is fully in place in childhood, around the age of 8, but many researchers have tested that it can be developed in later ages
  11. conformity perspective
    views humans as creatures of onformity who want to do the 'right thing'
  12. nonconformist perspective
    • assumes that human beings are basically undisciplined creatures who, without the constraints of the rules and regulations of a given society 
    • unruly or deviants
    • does not blame people for their deviance
  13. learning perspective
    sees humans as beings as born neutral and subject to developmental changes throughout their life course
  14. social learning theory
    emphasizes such concepts as initiation of models and reinforcements one gains from one's behavior
  15. differential association theory
    criminal behaviour is learned, through social interactions
  16. criminology
    is the multidisciplinary study of crime
  17. sociological criminology
    • rich tradition in examining the relationship of demographic and group variables to crime
    • ex:// age, race, gender, class
  18. structuralist
    • they look at the underlying foundation of society
    • ex:// lack of employment and educational activities etc
  19. culturalist
    views the values and patterns of living within the given group of people
  20. psychological criminology
    the science of the behaviour and mental processes of the person who commits the crime
  21. cognitions
    refers to the attitudes, beliefs, values and thoughts that people hold about the social environment, interrelations, human nature, and themselves
  22. antisocial behaviour
    the legal designations deliquency and criminal behaviour, and the actios that violate standards of society but are not necessarily defined as crimes
  23. clearance rate
    an offense cleared when at least one person is arrested, charged with the commission of the offense, and remanded to the court for prosecution
  24. crime rate
    the percentage of crime known to police per 100 000 population
  25. dark figure
    the overall number of criminal offenses that go undetected or are unknown by law enforcement agencies
  26. developmental approach
    examines the changes and influences (risk factors) across a person's lifetime that contribute to the formation of antisocial and criminal behaviour or, alternately, that protect individuals with many risk factors in their lives
  27. hierarchy rule
    stipulates that when a number of offenses have been committed during a  series, only the most serious offense is included in the UCR data
  28. intimate partner violence (IPV)
    is committed primarily against women
  29. status offenses
    are forbidden only to juveniles bc of their age
  30. trait or disposition
    relatively stable and enduring tendency to behave in a particular way, and it distinguishes one person from another
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chapter 1 - psyc39