ch 01, 6 levels of organization, metabolism, homeostasis, feedback.txt

  1. Anatomy
    science of body structures and relationships
  2. Physiology
    science of body functions
  3. 6 levels of organization (smallest to biggest)
    chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organismal
  4. chemical level
    includes atoms and molecules
  5. Molecules
    two or more atoms joined together (ie: DNA, glucose)
  6. Atoms
    smallest unit of matter (ie: carbon, oxygen)
  7. cellular level
    molecules combine to form cells (ie: muscle, nerve, epithelial, RBC)
  8. cells
    basic structural and functional unit of an organism
  9. tissue level
    group of cells and materials surrounding them
  10. 4 types of tissue
    epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous
  11. Where are all four tissues found
    small intestines
  12. organ level
    tissues are joined to form organs
  13. Organ
    structures composed of 2 or more different types of tissue
  14. Types of organs in urinary system
    kidney, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
  15. system level
    consists of related organs with common function (ie: digestive system: breaks down and absorbs food, includes organs such as mouth, stomach, etc.)
  16. Metabolism
    sum of all chemical processes in the body
  17. catabolism
    breakdown of complex chemical substances into simpler components
  18. anabolism
    building up of complex chemical substances from more simpler components
  19. Homeostasis
    condition of equilibrium (balance) in the body's internal environment
  20. Intracellular fluid (ICF)
    fluid within cells (ie: cytoplasm)
  21. Extracellular Fluid (ECF)
    fluid outside cells
  22. Types of ECF
    blood plasma (within blood vessels), lymph (within lymphatic vessels), synovial (in joints), aqueous humor and vitreous body (in eyes)
  23. cerebrospinal fluid
    type of extracellular fluid that holds the brain and spinal chord
  24. Feedback system components and role
    receptor - monitors change in controlled condition, sends input to the control center (ie: nerve ending of the skin in response to temp change), control center - evaluates input from receptors and generates output command (ie: nerve impulses, hormones - brain acts as control center receiving nerve impulses from skin temp receptors), effector - receives output from the control center, produces a response that changes the controlled condition (shivering to generate heat)
  25. Negative Feedback system
    reverses a change in a controlled condition (ie: regulation of blood pressure)
  26. Positive Feedback system
    strengthens or reinforces a change in one of the body's controlled conditions (ie: childbirth)
  27. positive feedback example - blood loss
    when blood loss, blood pressure drops, cells receive less oxygen and function less, and if blood loss continues, heart becomes weaker and stops to pump at all
  28. negative feedback example - regulation of blood pressure
    baroreceptors detect high BP, send nerve impulses (afferent or sensory) to brain to interpret, brain sends back nerve impulses (efferent) to heart and blood vessels, which drops BP and restores homeostasis.
Card Set
ch 01, 6 levels of organization, metabolism, homeostasis, feedback.txt
ch 1