The mammalian nervous system

  1. Vertebrate nervous systems
    • brain 
    • spinal cord
    •  peripheral nerves (extend throughout the body)
  2. CNS
    brain & spinal cord
  3. PNS
    cranial & spinal nerves that connect the CNS to all tissues
  4. The peripheral nervous system breaks into what two divisions
    • sensory (afferent) division
    • motor (efferent) division
  5. Sensory division breaks into _______ sensory & ______ sensory
    • somatic sensory
    • visceral sensory
  6. General functions of the somatic sensory
    • touch
    • pain 
    • pressure
    • vibration
    • temperature
    • proprioception (in skin, body wall, and limbs)
  7. Special functions of the somatic sensory
    • hearing
    • equilibrium 
    • vision
  8. General functions of the visceral sensory
    • stretch 
    • pain 
    • temperature
    • chemical changes
    • irritation 
    • nausea & hunger
  9. Special functions of the visceral sensory
    • taste 
    • smell
  10. Efferent division breaks into what two systems
    • somatic nervous system
    • autonomic nervous system (ANS)
  11. Somatic nervous system is responsible for
    motor innervation of all skeletal muscles
  12. ANS is responsible for
    • Motor innervation of:
    • smooth muscle
    • cardiac muscle 
    • glands
  13. ANS breaks into
    sympathetic & parasympathetic divisions
  14. PNS is basically all _____ & ____ outside the CNS. None of it is encased in _____
    • nerves & ganglia
    • bone
  15. The main function of PNS is to connect _____ & ______ to the CNS
    limbs & organs
  16. ANS is the output of the _____ that controls ______ functions
    • CNS
    • involuntary
  17. ANS has two division that work in _____. One will ______ a function while the other _____ it.
    • opposition
    • increase
    • decreaes
  18. _______ & ______ divisions are distinguished by anatomy, neurotransmitters and their actions
    Sympathetic & parasympathetuc
  19. Autonomic efferent pathways begin with ______ ______ that use ACh and have cell bodies in the ______ or _____ ____
    • cholinergic neurons 
    • brainstem or spinal cord
  20. The ______ ______ synapse on a 2nd neuron outside the CNS, in a collection of neurons called a _____
    • preganglionic neurons 
    • ganglion
  21. The second neuron is ________, its axon leaves the ganglion and synapses in the target _____
    • postganglionic
    • organs
  22. Postganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic division are mostly _____
    cholinergic
  23. Sympathetic postganglionic neurons are _______; use norepinephrine as their neurotransmitter
    noradrenergic
  24. Target cells respond in opposite ways to _______ & _______. State an example
    • ACTH & norepinephrine
    • Pacemaker cells in the heart
  25. The ____ region contains preganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic region
    sacral
  26. The ______ & _____ regions contain sympathetic preganglionic neurons
    thoracic & lumbar
  27. The sympathetic division is specialized to innervate the _______ response in the ______ gland
    • fight or flight 
    • adrenal gland
  28. Preganglionic sympathetic neurons send axons to the ______ under extreme conditions, like a bear attack.
    adrenal gland
  29. Hormone-secreting cells in the adrenal are actually _____ neurons. They secrete ______ that act as hormones into the circulation.
    • modified neurons
    • neurotransmitters
  30. Nerve
    a bundle of axons that carries information
  31. The ______ part of the PNS carries sensory information to the CNS
    afferent
  32. The ____ part of the PNS carries information from the CNS to muscles and glands
    efferent
  33. 3 characteristics of the spinal cord
    • conducts information (motor or sensory) between brain and organs
    • integrates info coming from PNS 
    • responds by issuing motor commands
  34. The anatomy of the spinal cord can be broken down into _____ & ____ matter
    gray & white matter
  35. Gray matter
    is in the center, and contains cell bodies of spinal neurons
  36. White matter
    • surrounds gray matter and
    • contains axons that conduct information up and down the spinal cord
  37. Spinal nerves extend from the _____ ____
    spinal cord
  38. Name 4 parts of the brain the medulla oblongata uses to controls autonomic functions
    • respiration center
    • cardiac center
    • vasomotor center
    • reflex centers (vomiting, coughing, sneezing, swallowing)
  39. 5 functions of the pons
    • sleep
    • respiration
    • swallowing
    • bladder control
    • posture
  40. 4 functions of the midbrain
    • vision
    • hearing 
    • sleep/wake 
    • arousal
  41. 2 functions of the cerebellum
    • motor control
    • motor learning
  42. What type of motor control does the cerebellum exert (4)
    • fine motor control
    • coordination
    • precision 
    • timing
  43. Certain forms of ________ ______ involve the atrophy of the cerebellum
    spinocerebellar ataxia
  44. 3 feautures of spinocerebellar ataxia
    • atrophy of the cerebellum
    • Poor coordination of hands, speech, eye movements
    • Unsteady and clumsy motion of the body
  45. _______ transfers short term memory to long term memory
    hippocampus
  46. _______ is critical for fear and fear memory
    The amygdala
  47. The _____ _____ are gray matter centers that surround the thalamus on both sides of the brain
    basal nuclei
  48. The basal nuclei moderate _______ movements directed by _____ _____ in the cerebrum
    • voluntary movements
    • motor centers
  49. Damage to basal nuclei can affect the planning and fine-tuning of the _____ _____. State an example
    • body movements
    • ex: parkinson's disease
  50. Where do we find basal ganglia?
    deep within the cerebral white matter
  51. The three parts of the basal ganglia
    • caudate nucleus 
    • putamen
    • globus pallidus
  52. Basal ganglia are basically complex _____ _____. They cooperate with the _____ ______ in controlling movement
    • complex neural calculators
    • cerebral cortex
  53. Basal ganglia receive input from many ______ areas.
    cortical
  54. _______ ______ influences basal ganglia
    Substantia nigra
  55. The diencephalon forms the ______ _____ of the ______. It is surrounded by the _______ _______. It borders the _____ ventricle and is primarily composed of ______ _____.
    • center core of the forebrain
    • cerebral hemispheres
    • third ventricle
    • gray matter
  56. The structures that make up the diencephalon
    • thalamus
    • hypothalamus
    • epithalamus
  57. 4 structures that make up thalamic nuclei:
    • Medial geniculate body (auditory cortex)
    • Lateral geniculate body (visual cortex)
    • Pulvinar nucleus (association cortex)
    • Ventral postero-lateral nucleus (somatosensory cortex)
  58. The hypothalamus lies between the ____ ____ and the ______ _____
    optic chiasm & mammillary bodies
  59. ______ gland projects inferiorly from the hypothalamus
    pituitary gland
  60. The hypothalamus contains approximately how many nuclei
    a dozen
  61. The hypothalamus is the main ____ ____ center of the body aka?
    • visceral control center 
    • aka the master gland's master
  62. _________ _______ projects to the posterior pituitary releasing oxytocin and ADH
    paraventricular nucleus
  63. The nuclei of the hypothalamus that project toward the anterior pituitary release ______ _______ hormone and _____ _____ hormone.
    • thyrotropin releasing hormone
    • corticotropin releasing hormone
  64. The cerebrum is the dominant structure in ________.
    mammals
  65. Cerebral cortex
    a sheet of gray matter covering each hemisphere that is convoluted to fit into the skull.
  66. 2 prominent features of the cerebral cortex
    • gyri (gyrus): ridges of the cortex
    • sulci (sulcus): valleys of the cortex
  67. The association cortex is part of the _____ cortex. Association cortex is made up of areas that integrate or associate ______ information or _______.
    • cerebral cortex
    • sensory information 
    • memories
  68. State the 4 cortical lobes of the cerebral cortex
    • temporal
    • frontal 
    • parietal
    • occipital
  69. The temporal lobe receives and processes _____ information
    auditory information
  70. In the frontal lobe, you will find the _____ sulcus, which divides the _____ & _____ lobes
    • central sulcus
    • frontal & parietal lobes
  71. 8 functions associated with the frontal lobe
    • reasoning 
    • planning 
    • parts of speech
    • movement
    • emotions
    • problem solving
    • working memory 
    • personality
  72. The primary motor cortex is located in front of the _____ _____ and controls ______ in specific body areas
    • central sulcus 
    • muscles
  73. 6 functions associated with the parietal lobe
    • movement 
    • orientation 
    • recognition
    • perception of stimuli
    • spatial abilities 
    • integration of sensory information
  74. The occipital lobe receives and process _____ information
    visual information
  75. The association areas of the occipital lobes involve making sense of the _____ world & translating _____ experience into _____.
    • visual world
    • visual experience
    • language
  76. Broca's area
    in frontal lobe; damage results in slow or lost speech; still can read and understand language
  77. Wrenicke's area (location/ definition)
    Located in the temporal lobe. Damage results in inability to speak sensibly; written or spoken language not understood. Still can produce speech
  78. Speech commands are formulated in _______ area, travel to ______ area, and then to the ______ _____ cortex for production
    • Wernicke's area
    • Broca's area
    • primary motor cortex
Author
chikeokjr
ID
324695
Card Set
The mammalian nervous system
Description
week 4 pt 2
Updated