Chp 8b/c/d Connective tissue/Muscle/Nerve

  1. The electrical potential is mediated by _______and ______ ions passing in and out through the cell membrane
    • sodium
    • potassium
  2. Nerve tissue is derived from the _______ in the embryo
  3. What are the parts of a neuron
    a neural cell body and two types of neural cytoplasmic processes
  4. The neural cell body provides ________ for the entire neuron and is not involved in the process of _______
    • the metabolic support
    • impulse transmission
  5. The neuron is also not capable of undergoing
  6. ganglia are surrounded by
    connective tissue
  7. What is an axon
    a long, thin, singular process that conducts impulses away from the cell body
  8. axon is encased in its own cell membrane or covered by a
    myelin sheath
  9. What is the function of the myelin sheath
    increases the speed of conduction and aid in regeneration of damaged nerves
  10. The outer layer of the myelin sheath is the
    Schwann cell
  11. What are the nodes of Ranvier
    they form a gap between adjacent Schwann cells
  12. What is the function of the dendrites
    receive and conduct nerve impulses toward the cell body
  13. What is a nerve
    a bundle of neural processes outside the CNS
  14. What is a synapse
    the junction between two neurons or between a neuron and an organ
  15. The afferent or sensory nerve, carries information
    from the periphery of the body to the brain or spinal cord
  16. The efferent, or motor nerve, carries information
    away from the brain to the periphery of the body
  17. What are the two subdivisions of the peripheral nervous system
    somatic and autonomic nervous system
  18. Autonomic nerves are only what kind of nerves
    efferent nerves
  19. Autonomic nerves are always in
    2-neuron chains
  20. What are the two subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system
    the sympathetic system and the parasympathetic system
  21. the stimulation of salivary gland secretion involves what system
    parasympathetic nervous system
  22. the shutdown of the salivary gland secretion involves what system
    The sympathetic nervous system
  23. most muscles are derived from
  24. What are the three types of muscle tissue
    skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle
  25. Smooth muscle and cardiac muscle are considered what kind of muscles
  26. What are some characteristics of skeletal muscles
    • Peripheral nuclei
    • Striations
    • No branching
    • Voluntary
  27. Skeletal muscles are also called
    striated muscles
  28. Muscle-->_______---->______---->______----->______
    • fascicles
    • myofibers
    • myofibrils
    • myofilaments
  29. What are some characteristics of smooth muscle
    • Central nuclei
    • No striations
    • No branching
    • Meshwork appearance
    • Involuntary
  30. Where is smooth muscle located
    organs, glands and the linings of blood vessels
  31. The shape of smooth muscles can be described as
    tapered and spindle shaped
  32. What are some characteristics of cardiac muscles
    • Central nuclei
    • Striations
    • Branching
    • Involuntary
  33. cardiac muscle fibers are
    short and branch
  34. What are the classifications of connective tissues
    • soft
    • firm
    • rigid
    • fluid
  35. What is soft connective tissue
    those tissues found in the deeper layers of skin and oral mucosa such as connective tissue proper
  36. What is firm connective tissue
    different types of cartilage
  37. What is rigid connective tissue
  38. What is fluid connective tissue
    blood with all its components and lymph fluid
  39. Connective tissue is derived from the ______ during prenatal development
  40. Compared with epithelium, connective tissue is usually composed of ____cells, spaced farther apart and with _____amounts of matrix between the cells
    • fewer
    • larger
  41. Most of connective tissue is renewable because
    its cells are capable of mitosis.
  42. What are the various functions of connective tissue
    support, storing, transporting, repairing and defense
  43. T or F Connective tissue are vascularized
  44. The most common cell in all kinds of connective tissue is the
  45. Young fibroblasts that are actively engaged in the production of fibers and intercellular substance appear to have a
    large amount of cytoplasm, mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum
  46. _________ are the main fiber type found in the human body
    Collagen fibers
  47. all connective tissues except for _____ contain some collagen fibers
  48. Each collagen fiber is composed of many smaller subunits or ______ which are then composed of _______
    • fibrils
    • microfibrils
  49. The most common type of collagen protein is
    Type I collagen
  50. Cells responsible for synthesis of Type I collagen include
    fibroblasts, osteoblasts (which make bone) and odontoblasts (which make dentin).
  51. ________are found more in embryonic tissues and so are rarely found in the body
    Reticular fibers
  52. Soft connective tissue can be classified as either
    loose connective tissue, dense connective tissue or specialized connective tissue
  53. connective tissue proper contains what two layers
    loose and dense connective tissues
  54. The connective tissue proper is found
    underneath the epithelium and basement membrane in the deeper layers of both the skin and oral mucosa
  55. The connective tissue proper in the skin is termed the
  56. What does the hypodermis consist of
    loose connective tissue, adipose tissue, glandular tissue and large blood vessels and nerves
  57. In the oral mucosa, the connective tissue proper is called the ________ and the deeper connective tissue is called the _______
    • lamina propria
    • submucosa
  58. What two layers are missing in the oral cavity
  59. The superficial layer of the dermis of the skin and lamina propria of the oral mucosa is composed of
    loose connective tissue
  60. In the dermis and the lamina propria, this layer of loose connective tissue is also called the
    papillary layer
  61. Tissue renewal of the connective tissue proper in skin and oral mucosa occurs as a result of the
    production of fibers and intercellular substance by fibroblasts
  62. When a tissue is injured what is what is produced by the fibroblasts and white blood cells underneath the clot and newly forming epithelium
    immature connective tissue
  63. immature connective tissue is called _________ and has ____ fibers and ______ blood vessels
    • granulation tissue
    • few
    • a lot of
  64. Later during the repair process granulation tissue is replaced by ________ which contains an increased amount of _____ and fewer ________
    • scar tissue
    • fibers
    • blood vessels
  65. Specialized connective tissue includes
    adipose, elastic and reticular tissue
  66. Unlike most connective tissue adipose connective tissue has cells
    packed tightly together with little or no matrix
  67. describe reticular connective tissue
    a delicate network of interwoven reticular fibers forming a supportive framework
  68. ________ is a firm, _________ connective tissue that serves as a skeletal tissue in the body
    • Cartilage
    • noncalcified
  69. Cartilage, unlike most connective tissue is
  70. The connective tissue surrounding most cartilage is the
  71. Cartilage is composed of
    cells and matrix
  72. What are the two types of cells found in cartilage
    chondroblasts and chondrocytes
  73. What are chondrocytes
    mature chondroblasts
  74. After the production of cartilage, the chondrocyte becomes
    surrounded and enclosed by the cartilage
  75. Small space surrounding the chondrocyte
  76. What are the three different types of cartilage
    hyaline, elastic and fibrocartilage
  77. _______ is the most common type of cartilage found in the body
  78. ________ is never found alone and merges with neighboring _______
    • Fibrocartilage
    • hyaline cartilage
  79. Interstitial growth is growth from deep within the cartilage by the
    mitosis of each chondrocyte
  80. Interstitial growth is important in the development of
    bone tissue
  81. _________ is layered growth on the outside of the tissue
    Appositional growth
  82. Chondrocytes develop in the
  83. What are some functions of bone
    • Bone also aids in movement
    • manufactures blood cells by way of its bone marrow
    • and is a storehouse for calcium and other minerals
    • a reservoir for minerals
  84. What does bone consist of
    • 33 % organic matrix most of which is type I collagen
    • and 67% mineralized matrix (inorganic material) known as calcium hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2
  85. Characterisitic of all bones are a dense _________ and a central _______ which is filled with bone marrow
    • outer sheet of compact bone
    • medullary cavity
  86. is the most differentiated of all the connective tissues
  87. The outer portion of compact bone is covered by
  88. What is periosteum
    a dense connective tissue that contains blood vessels, nerves and bone-forming cells called osteoblasts
  89. Within compact bone is
    a spongy or cancellous bone
  90. Describe compact bone
    strong because it has fewer soft tissue spaces, but it is heavy
  91. Describe cancellous bone
    light because it is formed by pieces of solid bone that join to form a lattice (network). It isn’t as strong since it has more soft tissue spaces
  92. Lining the medullary cavity of bone on the inside of the layers of compact bone and cancellous bone is the
  93. On the innermost portion of bone in the medullary cavity is the
    bone marrow
  94. The matrix between the bone cells is composed of
    organic collagen fibers, mostly   collagen and intercellular substance
  95. Bone matrix is initially formed as a nonmineralized tissue called ____ produced by ______
    • osteoid
    • osteoblasts
  96. canaliculi
    tubular canals that provide interaction between osteocytes
  97. Unlike chondrocytes, osteocytes never
    undergo mitosis
  98. Bone matrix in compact bone is formed into closely apposed sheets called
  99. The organized arrangement of concentric lamellae in compact bone is called the
    haversian system
  100. The ______ is a unit of the haversian system
  101. haversian canal
    central vascular canal within each osteon
  102. What is the purpose of the haversian canals
    provide nutrition for the surrounding bone tissue
  103. Located on the exterior portion of the haversian system in compact bone are
    Volkmann’s canals or nutrient canals
  104. What are the two methods of growth for bone development
    intramembranous and endochondral ossification
  105. Intramembranous ossification is
    formation of osteoid within dense connective tissue
  106. Intramembranous ossification uses a method of
    appositional growth
  107. The maxilla and majority of the mandible are formed by
    intramembranous ossification
  108. Endochondral ossification is
    the formation of the osteoid within a hyaline cartilage model that subsequently becomes mineralized
  109. Howship’s lacuna
    a large shallow pit for osteoclast
  110. Generalized resorption occurs due to
    due to endocrine activity, in order to increase blood levels of calcium and phosphate needed by the body
  111. Localized resorption occurs as a result of
    infection, altered mechanical stress or pressure on bone so that it adapts by remodeling
  112. The blood cells are also called the
    formed elements in the blood
  113. The formed elements of the blood include
    the red blood cells, platelets and white blood cells
  114. The most common blood cell is the
    red blood cell or erythrocyte
  115. What are some characteristics of RBC
    • has no nucleus and does not undergo mitosis
    • besides carrying oxygen, also help in the clotting mechanism
  116. What are platelets and what do they function as
    • are actually fragments of other blood cells so are really not cells
    • also known as thrombocytes
    • function in the clotting mechanism
  117. What are the six different WBC's
    • neutrophils
    • lymphocytes
    • monocytes
    • eosinophils
    • basophils
    • and mast cells
  118. The most common WBC is the
    neutrophil or polymorphonuclear leukocyte
  119. PMN’s contain
    a large number of lysosomal enzymes and are active in phagocytosis
  120. _______are the second most common WBC
  121. What are the two major types of lymphocytes
    the T-cell and the B-cell
  122. B-cells mature in the _______ while T-cells mature in the ______
    • bone marrow and lymph nodes
    • Thymus
  123. B-cells can further divide to become
    plasma cells
  124. Plasma cells produce
    immunoglobulins or antibodies in response to specific antigens
  125. The most common white blood cell in the connective tissue is ________ and is called a ________ once it leaves the blood and enters the tissues
    • monocyte
    • macrophage
  126. Eosinophils increase in numbers during
    an immune response, with allergies and in parasitic diseases
  127. Macrophages assist in
    the immune response to facilitate antibody production
  128. Mast cells are involved in
    • the immune response with allergies
    • Histamine released by mast cells plays a key role in inflammation
Card Set
Chp 8b/c/d Connective tissue/Muscle/Nerve
Chp 8b/c/d Connective tissue/Muscle/Nerve