A&P 1: Exam 2: Bones and Skeletal Tissues

  1. Cartilage, which contains _______ and _______, is surrounded by a layer of dense irregular connective tissue, the _________.
    • No nerves
    • Blood vessels 
    • Perichondrium
  2. The perichondrium acts like a girdle to resist _____ expansion when the cartilage is compressed.
  3. The perichondrium contains ________ from which nutrients diffuse through the matrix to reach the cartilage cells internally. This mode of nutrition delivery limits cartilage ______.
    • Blood vessels
    • Thickness
  4. Why type of cartilage covers the ends of most bones at moveable joints?
    Articular (Hyaline)Cartilage
  5. All three types of cartilage have the same basic components- cells called _______, encased in small cavities (_______) within extracellular matrix.
    • Chondrocytes
    • Lacunae
  6. Cartilage that has a frosted glass look, freshly exposed, provides support with flexibility and resilience.
  7. Which cartilage is the most abundant?
  8. What skeletal cartilage forms the skeleton of the larynx and reinforces other respiratory passages?
    Respiratory Cartilage.
  9. What skeletal cartilage supports the external nose?
    Nasal Cartilage
  10. Which cartilage consist of roughly parallel rows of chondrocytes, altering with thick collagen fibers?
  11. Which cartilage is better able to withstand repeated bending?
    Elastic cartilage
  12. Which cartilage is more subject to both stretch and pressure; can be found as pad-like cartilages?
  13. What are the 7 important unctions of bones?
    • Support
    • Protection
    • Anchorage 
    • Mineral and growth
    • Blood cell formation
    • Fat storage
    • Hormone production
  14. Bone is a reservoir for minerals, most importantly _______ and ________.
    • Calcium
    • Phosphate
  15. Where is red marrow found the long bone?
    Epyphysis: Spongy tissue
  16. What is the term used to describe blood cell formation?
  17. Bones produce _____(hormone) that helps regulate _____ secretions.
    • Osteocalcin 
    • Insulin
  18. The skull, vertebral column, and rib cage make up the _____ skeleton.
  19. The extremities, and girdles that attach the limbs of the axial skeleton make up the _______ skeleton.
  20. Long bones are named for their ______ shape, not their overall size.
  21. Some sesamoid bones act to _____ the direction of pull of a tendon.
  22. The vertebrae and hip bones are classified as _______ bones.
  23. In living bones, the open spaces between trabeculae are filled with ______.
    Red or yellow bone marrow
  24. Describe spongy bone.
    Honeycomb of small needle-like or  flat pieces trabeculae
  25. Short, irregular, and flat bones share a simple design: They all consist of thin plates of _____ tissue(diploe)covered by compact tissue.

    The compact bone is covered outside and inside by ______ tissue membranes, respectively the ______ and the ______.
    • Spongy 
    • Connective
    • Periosteum
    • Endosteum
  26. Name of long bone shaft
  27. Name of long bone ends
  28. A thin layer of  _______ cartilage covers the joint surface of each epiphysis, cushioning the opposing bone ends during _____ and absorbing ______.
    • Articular(hyaline) 
    • Movement 
    • Stress
  29. A relatively thick collar of compact bone that surrounds a central ______ cavity.
  30. The epiphyseal plate, once done with growth, becomes the ________.
    Epiphyseal Line.
  31. ______ of long bone provides anchoring points for tendons and ligaments.
  32. A delicate connective tissue membrane called ______ covers the internal bone surfaces.
  33. The periosteum of the long bone is made up of _______ tissue
    Dense Irregular connective
  34. Periosteum: The inner ______ layer, next to the bone surface, consists primarily of primitive stem cells, _______ cells, that give rise to all bone cells except bone destroying cells
    • Osteogenic
    • Osteogenic
  35. The periosteum is richly supplied with _______ fibers and _______, which pass through the ____ to enter the marrow cavity via a ______ foramen.(Perforating _______ fibers)
    • Nerve
    • Blood vessels
    • Shaft
    • Nutrient 
    • Sharpey's
  36. What part of the bone provides anchorage points for tendons and ligaments?
  37. Membrane; delicate connective tissue, covers internal bone surfaces.
  38. The ______ lines the canals that pass through the compact bone.
  39. The periosteum and the endosteum contain _____ cells that differentiate into other bone cells
  40. Bone markings: 
    Projections include
    • Trochanters
    • Spines
    • Heads
  41. Bone Markings:
    Depressions and openings include:
    • Fossae 
    • foramen 
    • sinuses 
    • foramina
  42. Depressions and opening in bone allow for . . .
    Nerves and blood vessels to pass
  43. Projections on bones indicate the _____ created by muscle
  44. In growing bones, osteogenic cells are _______ or flattened cells.
  45. Osteogenic cells can be found . . .
    • Periosteum 
    • Endosteum
  46. Osteoid is
    the  initial unmineralized bone; secrete collagen and calcium binding proteins
  47. Bone-forming cells secreted in the bone matrix?
  48. Osteocytes are ______ cells that occupy spaces (______) that conform to their shape.
    • Mature
    • Lacunae
  49. What bones cells monitor and maintain the bone's matrix?
  50. Osteoclasts are _____-nucleate cells located at sites of bone re-______.
    • Multi-
    • -sorption
  51. The structural unit of long bone
  52. Tiny weight bearing pillars that run parallel to  the long bone axis of the bone.
  53. Growth rings surrounding and composing the osteon.
  54. Lamellar bone is another name for . . .
    Compact bone
  55. Although all of the collagen fibers in a particular lamella runs in the same direction, the collagen fibers in the adjacent lamellae always run in ______ directions. This alternating pattern is beautifully designed to withstand ______ stresses.
    • Different 
    • Torsion
  56. Junctions of the lamellae, that are occupied by osteocytes.
  57. Hairlike canals connecting lacunae to each other  and to the central canal.
  58. The _____ tie all osteocytes in a mature osteon together, allowing them to communicate and permitting nutrients and wastes to be relayed from one osteocyte to the next throughout the osteon
  59. Hydroxyapaties, or _________, largely calcium phosphate present as tiny, tightly packed, needle-like crystals in and around ________ in the extracellular matrix.
    • Mineral salts
    • Collagen fibers
  60. Organic portion of the bone?
    • Osteoid
    • Mineral salts
  61. Trabeculae in spongy bone align percisly along lines of _____ and help the bone resist _____.
    • Stress
    • Stress
  62. Ossification in adults is mainly for bone ______ and ______.
    • Remodeling 
    • Repair
  63. What are the two forms of bone ossification processes?
    • Intramembranous 
    • Endochondral
  64. Which bone ossification process develops a bone from hyaline cartilage?
  65. Which bone ossification process develops from a fibrous membrane and the bone?
  66. Endochondral Ossification:

    1)A bone collar forms around the diaphysis of the hyaline cartilage model: _______ of the newly converted periosteum secrete ______ against the hyaline cartilage.
    • Osteoblast
    • Osteoid
  67. Endochondral Ossification:

    2)Cartilage in the center of the diaphysis calcifies and develops cavity: _______ within the shaft hypertrophy(enlarge) signaling cartilage matrix to calcify. Calcified matrix is ______ to diffusing nutrients, therefore the ______die, and the deterioration creates a cavity.
    • Chondrocytes 
    • Impermeable 
    • Chondrocytes
  68. Endochondral Ossification:

    3)The periosteal bud(collection of ______, ______, _______, _______, _______) invades the internal cavities and spongy bone forms
    • Artery
    • Vein
    • Nerve fibers
    • Red marrow elements
    • Osteogenic cells
    • Osteoclasts
  69. Endochondral Ossification:

    4)The diaphysis ______ and the medullary cavity _______.

    Secondary ______ centers appear.
    • Elongates 
    • Forms
    • Ossification
  70. Endochondral Ossification:

    5)The epiphyses ossify: Bone _____ appear
  71. The terms "long," "short," "flat," and "irregular" are used to classify bones based on their ________.
  72. Type of ossification process the forms the cranial bones and the clavicle
  73. –Red marrow in ______& some ______bones is the most active
    • diploë
    • Irregular
  74. Projections that are sites of______ and _______attachment
    • muscle          
    •  ligament
  75. Bone projections help to form ______.
  76. Osteoblasts mitotic, secrete _________ bone matrix that includes ______(90% of bone protein) & _______ that make up initial un-mineralized bone (osteoid)
    • un-mineralized
    • collagen
    • Ca-binding proteins
  77. Osteocytes are _______ that have ‘become trapped’üReside in lacunae & connected to each other via canaliculi. Signal ‘osteoblasts & osteoclasts’ about ‘______ stresses

  78. Osteogenic cells reside in endosteum & periosteum, ‘differentiate’ into ______ or bone ______ cells
    • osteoblasts
    • lining
  79. Intramembraous Ossification:

    Four major steps are involved:
    1._______ cells cluster and become osteoblasts, forming ossification centers
    2._____ is secreted, then calcified
    3.Osteoid is laid down between blood vessels, resulting in _____ called woven bone. Mesenchyme condenses to from ______.
    4. Lamellar bone replaces woven bone & red marrow appears (via its vascular tissue)
    • Mesenchymal
    • Osteoid
    • trabeculae
    • periosteum
  80. Interstitial growth ‘requires’ the presence of epiphyseal ‘_______’ in the epiphyseal _____.
    • cartilage
    • plate
  81. Testosterone (______) & estrogens (_____) at puberty: Promote adolescent growth spurts
    End growth by inducing ______closure
    • Males
    • Females
    • epiphyseal plate
  82. Growth of the bone is by cartilage, with replacement by bone via ______.
  83. During infancy and childhood, the single most important stimuli of epiphyseal plate activity is ______ released from the ______ gland.
    • Growth Hormone 
    • Anterior Pituitary
  84. ______ seam: a band of ‘unmineralized bone matrix’ that marks areas of ‘new matrix deposits’
    Between the ‘______seam’ & ‘older mineralized bone’, there is an abrupt transition zone called the ______
    –Calcium salts are deposited a few days later
    • Osteoid
    • Osteoid
    • Calcification front
  85. When reabsorption of a given area of bone is complete, the osteoclasts undergo _______.
  86. Osteoclast activation involves _______ & T cell-secreted proteins
    parathyroid hormone (PTH)
  87. Bones are stressed when ‘weight _____’ on them or ‘muscles _____’ on them
    • Bears
    • pull
  88. Wolff's Law –
    Bones ‘grow or remodel’ in response to the demands placed on them
  89. Bones ‘grow or remodel’ in response to the demands placed on them explains ______ Law
  90. _______ controls determine whether or when remodeling occurs in response to changing blood calcium level.
  91. Hormonal controls determine whether or when _______ occurs in response to changing blood ______ level.
    • remodeling
    • calcium
  92. ________ determines where the remodeling occurs.
    Mechanical Stress
  93. Mechanical stresses determines ______ the remodeling occurs.
  94. Hormone released by adipose tissue, plays a role in regulating bone ______.
  95. Hormone released by ______ tissue, plays a role in regulating bone density.
  96. Seratonin is made in the _____. Regulates ____ and _____.
    • Gut(intestine)
    • Mood
    • Sleep
  97. Osteomalacia: Condition in which osteoid is produced, but calcium salts are not adequately deposited, so bones are _____ and _____.
    Weak and Brittle
  98. Sex hormones- ______ in males and _____ in females-help maintain the health and normal bone density of the skeleton.
    • Androgens
    • Estrogen
  99. Bowed legs and deformities of the pelvis, skull, rib cage are common with _____.
  100. Osteomalacia and rickets are  caused by a insufficent _____ diet and a vitamin ____- deficiency.
    • Calcium
    • D
  101. Condition in which reabsorption outpaces bone deposit.
  102. Condition characteristed by Excessive and hazphazed bone deposit and re-absorption
    Paget's disease
Card Set
A&P 1: Exam 2: Bones and Skeletal Tissues
Chapter 6