9 Cardiovascular_2

  1. Atherosclerosis
    • a focal thickening of the Tunica Intima only (endocardium)
    • end up getting accumulations of the ECM + macrophages that have accumulated lots of lipid from cholesterol deposits
    • may also have SM muscle cells that will proliferate in this area (some of which also have lipid inside of them)
    • cholesterol deposits themselves are also found
    • a problem for the coronary arteries in particular, but can affect all arteries
    • Image Upload 1
  2. Complications of Atherosclerosis
    • 1. myocardial infarct (occlusion might block downstream blood flow → necrosis, scar tissue replacement)
    • 2. angina
    • 3. conductive anomalies (eg. arrhythmias due to death of Purkinje Fibers)
  3. What happens after cardiac myocyte death (perhaps due to infarct)?
    • ischemic events that kill cardiac myocytes results in replacement of myocytes with fibrous CT
    • Image Upload 2
    • cardiac muscle cells (myocardium) don’t regenerate easily; it’s hard to replace cardiac muscle
  4. Lymphatics
    • analogous to blind-ending capillaries
    • lined just by endothelial cells - look like capillaries but are just wider in diameter
  5. Edema
    • excessive amounts of fluid leaks out into connective tissue from post-capillary venules
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  6. Lymph Circulation
    • have lymphatics throughout the body that picks up interstitial fluid, transports it back to general circulation by entering subclavian veins
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    • along the way they’ll encounter lymph nodes which will both filter the lymph & expose it to immune cells
  7. Elephantiasis
    • when lymphatics fail to pick up interstitial fluid & transport it back to the general circulation
    • interstitial fluid accumulates (often in extremities) until there’s gross enlargement (extreme edema)
  8. Lymphatic v. Vein
    • Image Upload 5
    • looks identical except VEIN will have blood in it
    • Lymphatic might have lymph accumulated (pink blob) but no cells
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    • also just like vein, lymphatics will have valves - important for unidirectional flow
    • Image Upload 7
  9. The cardiovascular system is a closed system except for in which organ?
    closed system except in spleen
Card Set
9 Cardiovascular_2
Histology Exam 3