Main functions of Cardiovascular system?
It is responsible for the movement of blood and everything it carries throughout the animal body
Parts of Cardiovascular system (3)?
It is made up of the heart, all the blood vessels, and the blood itself
Cardiovascular system considered as which type of system?
It is considered a CLOSED system
Main functions of ARTERIES, VEINS, and CAPILLARIES?
- ARTERIES carry blood away from the heart
- VEINS carry blood toward the heart
- CAPILLARIES form the transition between arteries and veins
Cardiovascular system divided into which 2 parts?
- PULMONARY (lung) CIRCULATION
- SYSTEMIC (body) CIRCULATION
Describe every part of cardiovascular system?
- The right side of the heart conrols the PULMONARY circulation. It receives deoxygenated blood from throughout the animal's body (carried in veins) and pumps into the lungs where it becomes oxygenated
- The left side of the heart controls the SYSTEMIC circulation. It receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it out, to the rest of the animal's body.
Where the heart located?
The Heart is located in the middle of the thoracic cavity the MEDIASTINUM, the space between two lungs. When you viewing a standing animal the heart is located between the elbows
1. What is PERICARDIUM?
2. Which 2 parts it is divided?
- 1. Pericardium is a fibrous sac that contained the heart
- 2. Pericardium is divided into 2 parts: fibrous sac called PERICARDIAL SAC and the SEROUS PERICARDIUM
Which 2 serous membranes has SEROUS PERICARDIUM?
- Parietal layer (lines the pericardial sac)
- Visceral layer (lies directly on the surface of the heart) - other name epicardium.
- The PERICARDIAL SPACE is the area between the 2 membranes. It is filled with PERICARDIAL FLUID
Describe the wall of the heart?
- The wall of heart has 3 layers:
- 1. Endocardium is the membrane that lies on the internal surface of myocardium. It composed of epithelium and form the lining of the heart chambers, and covers the valves that separate the chambers of the heart. The endocardium is continuos with the endothelium that lines blood vessels.
- 2. Myocardium - cardiac muscle (middle and thickest). It is made up of cardiac muscle. The inside surface of myocardium forms papillary muscles that are covered by the endocardium.
- 3. Epicardium is the outermost layer of the heart wall. Another name for the Epicardium is the visceral layer of the serous pericardium.
Main characteristics of MYOCARDIUM? (3)
- 1. Myocardium is made up of continous muscle sheets. The muscle sheets make a greater force of contraction possible.
- 2. It is autorhytmic (it can start beating in a steady rhytm before an animal is born without taking a break)
- 3. It doesn't fatigue, getting tires
List structures found in mediastinum?
Heart, trachea, esophagus, thymus, lymph nodes, nerves
What is INTERATRIAL SEPTUM?
It is the continuation of myocardium that separates the left and the right atrium
The atria receive blood from the large veins that carry blood to the heart. When the atria have filled with blood their walls (composed of myocardium) contract and force blood through one-way valves into the ventricals. The myocardium of an atrium is not very thick
How to identify atria on the outside of the heart?
By their AURICLES (наушники). The auricle is part of the atrium but is not the entire atrium.
What is INTERVENTRICULAR SEPTUM?
Continuation of the interatrial septum that separates left and right ventricles.
What interatrial and interventricular septum form together?
What is the Interventricular groove?
What it containts?
- The area of the interventricular septum is visible on the outside of the heart as the Interventricular groove.
- The groove containts coronary (heart) blood vessels and filled with fat.
- When the ventricles have received blood from the atria the myocardium of the ventricular walls contract and force blood through one-way valves into arteries.
Where right and left ventricles pump the blood?
The right ventricle pumps blood to the pulmonary circulation through the pulmonary artery; the left ventricle pumps blood into the systemic circulation through the aorta.
1. How many one-way valves in the heart?
2. Their types and names
- 1. There are 4 one-way valves that control blood flow through the heart
- 2. The atrioventrical valves (AV valves): The right AV valve called tricuspid valve (has 3 cusps). The left AV valve called mitral valve (or bicuspid valve - has 2 cusps).
- The semilunar valves. The right semilunar valve is the pulmonary valve (3 cusps). The left semilunar valve is the aortic valve (3 cusps)
Functions of the heart valves?
The valves close at specific times to prevent back flow of blood into the chamber it just came from. Blood must flow in one direction only
Describe atrioventrical valves (AV valves)?
- The atrioventrical valves (AV valves) are located between the atria and ventricles.
- The RIGHT AV valve consists of three cusps (затворки) of endothelium and is called the TRICUSPID VALVE. It oppens when the pressure from the amount of blood in the right atrium forces it open and allows blood to flow into the right ventricle.
- The left AV valve called mitral valve (or bicuspid valve - has 2 cusps). It turns the blood to the left ventricle and also has attached chordae tendonae.
Describe semilunar valves?
- The 2 valves that control blood flow out of the ventricles and into arteries. They have 3 cusps.
- The right semilunar valve is the PULMONARY VALVE because blood from the right ventricle flows through it into the pulmonary circulation.
- The left semilunar valve is the AORTIC VALVE because blood from the left ventricle flows through it into the aorta
Which valve has only 2 cusps?
Mitral valve (or bicuspid valve)
Where situated Apex of the heart?
Apex of the heart is the pointed caudal end of the heart. The wall of the left ventricle forms the apex of the heart
Where situated base of the heart?
- Base of the heart is the rounded cranial end of the heart
1. Who makes the most work to do pumping blood through the systemic circulation?
2. What it get because of it?
- 1. The left ventricle.
- 2. It gets the largest blood supply because of it. And it has a thicker wall that contract with greater force.
What is coronary sinus?
The coronary sinus is a collection of veins joined together to form a large vessel that collects blood from the heart muscle (myocardium). It delivers deoxygenated blood to the right atrium
1. How calls collagen fiber cords that are attached to the edge of each cusp?
2. Their function?
- 1. Chordae Tendonae
- 2. To prevent the AV valves from opening backward into atria
Describe the entire purpose of heart via Cardiac Blood Flow?
- The entire purpose of the heart is to receive deoxygenated blood from the SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION (Right Atrium), send it out to the PULMONARY CIRCULATION for oxygenation (Right Ventricle), receive the freshly oxygenated blood back from the PULMONARY CIRCULATION (Left Atrium), and put it into SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION (Left Ventricle).
What is VENA CAVA?
The large vein that brings deoxiginated blood from the SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION to the heart
Which the largest elastic artery in the body?
Describe the complete circuit of the blood cell from the left ventricle back to the left ventricle?
Aortic valve, aorta, systemic circulation, vena cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary valve, pulmonary circulation, left atrium, mitral valve, left ventricle
1. Where situated skeleton of the heart?
2. What is made up of?
- 1. The skeleton of the heart is located between the atria and the ventricles.
- 2. It is made up of 4 dense fibrous connective tissue rings
- 3. It separates the atria and ventricles;
- - It anchors the heart valves
- - It provides a point of attachment for the myocardium
- - It provides some electrical insulation between the atria and the ventricles
1. What is the CARDIAC CYCLE?
2. What it's produce?
- 1 cycle of atrial and ventricular contraction and relaxation is a cardiac cycle.
- The cardiac cycle produces 1 heartbeat.
From where comes impulse for each heartbeat?
From the SINOATRIAL NODE (SA node) located in the wall of the right atrium. It is the pacemaker of heart
Describe how cardiac muscle goes through DEPOLARIZATION and REPOLARIZATION and back?
- Contracting cardiocyte (DEPOLARIZATION)
- 1. Na+ and Ca2+ moves from outside cell to inside cardiac cell. This reverse the polarity
- 2. K+ ions moves through channels from the inside to outside cell. It's restore the original polarity
- Depolarization occurs but ions on the wrong places now
- 3. REPOLARIZATION (relaxation) the ions are pumped back to their original location
Which structures make up the primary cardiac conduction? (4)
- Sinoatrial node (SA node)
- atrioventricular node (AV node)
- bundle of His
- Purkinje fiber
Why when the impulse from the SA node reaches the AV node it delays for a fraction of a second?
The delay permits the atria to complete their contraction before ventricular contraction begins
Could 1 atria and 1 ventricle contract at the same time?
No, because when the two atria contract, the two ventricles relax and vice versa.
How contract the ventricles?
- The ventricles actually contract starting from the apex and moving toward the base of the heart. (apex to base direction)
What is SYSTOLE?
Systole is the myocardium CONTRACTING, causing chamber to empty itself of blood. This is the working phase of the cardiac cycle when the cardiac muscle cell are depolarized.
What is DIASTOLE?
Diastole is the myocardium RELAXING and repolarizing after a contraction, allowing chambers to fill with blood again. This is the resting phase of the cardiac cycle
Describe the cardiac conduction system
- 1. The SA node has initiated an impulse
- 2. The impulse has spread through the wall of both atria and reached AV node (atrial depolarization)
- 3. The impulse has traveled down thev interventricular septum through the bundle of His, and the Purkinje fiber system has initiated ventricular contraction beginning at the apex
- 4. The impulse has spread through the walls of both ventricles (ventricular depolarization)
What is "LUB"sound?
AV valves (tricuspid and mitral valves) snap shut after atrial systole and make sound "Lub"
What is "DUB" sound?
Semilunar valves (pulmonary and aortic) snap shut after ventricular systole and make sound "Dub"
Where is the better place to hear heart sounds?
On the left side of the standing animal by placing stethoscope on the chest wall at about the point of the elbow. (Exept tricuspid valve - right side)
What is VALVULAR INSUFFICIENCY?
It is a heart condition where one or more of the cardiac valves don't close all the way. When this happens MURMUR occures
What is VALVULAR STENOSIS?
It is a heart condition where one or more of the cardiac valves don't open all the way. When this happens MURMUR occures
1. What is VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION?
2. How to treat it?
- 1. It is condition, in which heart muscle cells in different areas contract independently of one another. All coordinated pumping activity of the ventricles is lost.
- 2. The heart could be "reset" by defibrillation
What is DEFIBRILLATION?
The process of sending an electrical current through the heart to restart coordinated pumping activity and restore regular rhytm.
What stands for CHF?
Symptoms? What it could caused?
How I can cure it?
- Congestive Heart Failure = decreasing of the heart pumping ability. Could be right-sided or left-sided. Could be reason of edema (fluid in the tissues) or ascites (fluid in the abdomen)
- Medication used to treat CHF: cardiac glycosides, diuretics, vasolidators. CHF in pets cannot be cured, but it can be medically managed to improve the animal's quality of life.
What is the Stroke volume (SV)? Other name? What it is represent?
- The stroke volume is determined in part by the amount of blood that fills the ventricle during diastole, called PRELOAD, and the arterial resistance that the ventricle must pump against called the AFTERLOAD. Another name for SV is systolic discharge.
- The stroke volume represents the strenght of heartbeat.
What is CARDIAC OUTPUT (CO)?
Which factors determine it?
Formula of CO?
The amount of blood that the heart is capable of pumping per minute is called CARDIAC OUTPUT; this value is calculated by miltiplying the heart rate by the stroke volume.Cardiac output (CO) = stroke volume (SV) x heart rate (HR)
What is the HEART RATE?
Heart rate (HR) is the number of times the ventricle contracts or beats in 1 minute.
Which 2 main factors determined stroke volume (SV)? Describe them. What else can affect the SV?
- There are preload and afterload. The preload is the amount of blood the ventricle receives from the atrium; the afterload is the amount of physical resistance presented by the aorta.
- Lenght of the cardiac muscle cell can affect the SV. The longer the cells the more force they produce when they contract
Why heart needs blood supply?
Which organelles are responsible for it?
- 1. The cells of the heart need nourishment and oxygen brought to them and waste materials carried away.
- 2. Coronary arteries and coronary veins are resposible for these functions.
- - Coronary arteries are nourish the heart tissue.
- - Coronary veins are take debris out, join together and form a channel called CORONARY SINUS
1. Where the nerve fiber enter and terminate in the heart?
2. Function of the nerve fibers?
3. Does nerve supply essential for heart?
- 1. The nerve fibers enter the heart and ending primarily in the RIGHT ATRIUM near the area of cardiac muscle cells, that is the control center for the cardiac conduction system.
- 2. Some nerve fibers will stimulate an increased heart rate and others will stimulate a decreased heart rate.
- 3. No nerve suply is not essential.
What is HARDWARE DISEASE?
Puncture of the reticulum wall by a foreign object often results in traumatic reticuloperitonitis, also called hardware disease, which is inflamation and infection of the reticulum and abdominal cavity. Could turn to septic pericarditis, which is infection of pericardium that usually progresses to heart failure and death
1. What is Pericardial Effusion?
2. How it could be treated?
- 1. A number of conditions such as infection, inflammation, or hemorrhage may cause excess fluid to accumulate in the pericardial sac. This condition is called PERICARDIAL EFFUSION. Sometimes pericardial effusion is idiopathic, meaning it may occur spontanosly with no known cause.
- 2. It may be treated by inserting a needle into the pericardial sac (usually through the chest wall) and withdrawing the excess fluid.
1. What is CARDIAC TAMPONADE?
2. How it could be treated?
- 1. The outer layer of the heart, called fibrous pericardium, is not elastic, so when the pericardial space is overfilled with fluid, the heart becomes unable to expand (расширяться) normally between contractions. This condition called CARDIAC TAMPONADE, leads to less compete cardiac filling, decreased stroke volume, and decreased cardiac output.
- 2. It may be treated by inserting a needle into the pericardial sac (usually through the chest wall) and withdrawing the excess fluid.
What the main characteristic of timing in the heart work?
Even though the two sides of the heart pump blood to different areas they do so AT THE SAME TIME (for ex. the tricuspid & mitral valves open and close at the same time; AV valves closed and the semilunar valves open - наоборот)
What is the sound of heartbeat?
The valves closing produce sounds thst can be heard with a stethoscope: the heartbeat
Three layers of of arteries and veins walls? Their functions?
- 1. The inner layer is ENDOTHELIUM. It provides a smooth surface for the vessel lumen.
- 2. The middle layer of a blood vessel wall is made up o fsmooth muscle, elastic fibers, or both. The elastic fibers provide stretchability to the vessel wall.
- 3. The outer layer of a blood vessel is composed of fibrous connective tissue and collagen fibers. The connective tissue prevents vessel from tearing. The collagen fibers anchor the vessels so they can't move around too much. They also help keep the lumen of the vessel pulled open.
Types of ARTERIES? (2)
- 1. Elastic arteries (have greatest ability to stretch; these arteries are found closest to the heart. The aorta is the largest elastic artery in the body).
- 2. Muscular arteries (have more smooth muscle fibers than elastic fibers in their walls. They are found away from heart; have smaller diameter. Muscular arteries branch into arterioles).
What is ARTERIOLES?
Arterioles are the smallest branches of the arterial tree.
1. What is capillaries?
2. How calls group of cappilaries?
3. Size of the capillary wall?
- 1. Arterioles branch into many microscopic blood vessels called CAPPILARIES.
- 2. Cappilary beds or capillary networks
- 3. The wall of capillary is 1 endothelial cell thick. For this reason the exchange of gases and nutrients takes place at this level.
1. What is VENULES?
3. What they form together?
4. Largest vein in the animal's body?
5. What have small and medium veins?
- 1. Capillaries join together to form tiny veins called VENULES.
- 2. In the pulmonary circulation the venules carry oxygenated blood; in the systemic circulation they carry deoxygenated blood and waste materials.
- 3. Venules join together to form veins, veins are named for thei corresponding arteries
- 4. VENA CAVA
- 5. Small and medium veins have one-way valves in their lumens, the valves allow blood to flow only in the direction of the heart, they each have only 2 cusps
1. Difference between blood circulation in the fetus and the newborn?
2. How fetus receives oxygen?
3. Which bypasses for blood excist in the fetus? (2)
- 1. The newborn receives oxygen through its own lungs, and a fetus receives oxygen from the blood of its mother. Blood in the fetal circulation to go around the lungs instead of through them.
- 2. Through the organ named placenta. The oxygenated blood from the mother flows from the placenta into the fetus through the umblical vein.
- 3. Foramen ovale (between the right and left atria); ductus arteriosus (goes directly in aorta)
What is PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS?
How I can treat it?
- It is condition when the opening of ductus arteriosus fails to close in the newborn.
- PDA may be treated with drug therapy to promote closure, or surgical closure of the ductus arteriosus may be an option.
1. What is PULSE?
2. Where I can feel the pulse?
3. Is that the same thing with heartbeat?
- 1. The pulse is the rate of alternating stretching and recoiling of the elastic fibers in an artery as blood passes through it with each heartbeat.
- 2. In most animals the pulse is felt on superficial medium-sized arteries lying against firm surfaces such as bone (femoral pulse).
- 3. No, The pulse and the heartbeat in an animal are not the same thing
Special thing about a measurement pulse on animal? General rule?
When feeling for a pulse, use the tips of your index and midle fingers, not your thumb because the tumb has its own pulse. As a general rule, larger animals have slower pulse rates and smaller animals have faster pulse rates.
1. What is blood pressure?
2. Which is the highest numbers?
3. Which is the lowest numbers?
4. Third value?
- 1. Blood pressure is measure of the amount of pressure flowing blood exerts on arterial walls.
- 2. The highest numbers is SYSTOLIC blood pressure. It is produced by ejection of blood from left ventricle into the systemic circulation by way of the aorta.
- 3. The lowest number is the DIASTOLIC blood pressure. It measures the pressure remaining in the artery during left ventricular diastole when the ventricle is relaxing and reffiling with blood.
- 4. A third value, the MEAN ARTERIAL PRESSURE (MAP), is the average pressure during 1 cardiac cycle.
2 methods of blood pressure measurement?
- 1. The OSCILLOMETRIC method (using for measuement systolic and diastolic blood pressures)
- 2. Doppler ultrasound (this method accurately measures systolic blood pressure only)
Direct and inderect tests of entire cardiovascular system.
- * Auscultation
- * Peripheral artery palpation
- * Measurement of arterial blood pressure
- * Thoracic radiography
- * Electrocardiography
- * Echocardiography
What is ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY?
- Electrocardiography produces an electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) based on electrical activity of the heart arising from the contractions
- P wave - trial depolarization,
- QRS complex - ventricular depolarization,
- T wave - ventricular repolarization
What is ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY
Another way to evaluate the heart is through echocardiography (ECHO or cardiac ultrasound). ECHO can be used to evaluate the size, shape, and movement of the heart and its parts. Black color is a fluid
What is doppler cardiography? How its uses?
Doppler echocardiography measures blood flow through the heart and adds color to the image. Especially useful for evaluating valvular stenosis and issufiency.
How used superficial blood vessels?
Which veins are commonly used for venipuncture?
- The superficial blood vessels are used to collect blood samples, administer medications intravenously, and place venous or arterial catheters.
- In dogs and cats the cephalic vein of the thoracic limb is commonly used for venipuncture.
- In the pelvic limb of dogs and cats, the femoral vein (more commonly used in cats) or the saphenous vein (more commonly used in dogs) may be used for venipuncture
- The jugular vein is commonly used for venipuncture in nearly all animal species, both large and small.
- The jugular veins are located near the carotid arteries. In all species, but especially in the horse, care must be taken to avoid accidental injection into the carotid artery (they are carries blood very quickly to the brain).
- The lactating dairy cattle - milk vein
- In ruminants and rodents, the coccygeal vein may be used for venipuncure.
4 basic factors of cardiac reserve:
- 1. Increasing the heart rate
- 2. Increasing the stroke volume
- 3. Increasing the efficiency of the heart muscle
- 4. Cardiac remodeling
arrhythmias with a rapid rate
arrhythmias with a slow rate
A disease of the myocardium (the myocardium becomes thin and innefective in its pumping action)
A disease of the myocardium (the myocardium becomes thickened and resists ventricular filling)
Why sodium is bad for cardiovascular system?
Increased sodium levels in the body lead to water retention, increased plasma volume, and exacerbation (обострение) of the clinical signs of heart failure (heart failure may impair other internal organs: kidneys, liver, GI tract)
What is ACE inhibitors?
ACE inhibitors act as vasolidators and may be used in the treatment of Stage B, C, and D heart failure
When arrhythmias occur?
When situations cause spontaneous depolarization of cardiac muscle or abnormalities of the conduction system.
What is Saddle Thrombus?
Cat disease. It is a blood clot that prevents blood flow to the back legs and is an extremely serious condition.
What is HYPERTENSION ?
high blood pressure
What is HYPOTENSION?
Low blood pressure
What is HEART MURMUR?
Heart murmur is sound caused by turbulence within the heart, its valves or its large vessels. In pets, heart murmur very often occurs when a heart valve fails to close properly. A small quantity of blood flows back, and the stethoscope detects the sound of the leakage.
What you can determine with CHEST X-RAY?
What appears black on the chest X-ray?
- X-ray make it possible to determine:
- Heart size and shape
- Condition of the lungs
- Position of airways
- Vessel size and shape
- ***On x-ray AIR is black areas
What is VHS?
Vertebral Heart Size (Score) VHS = measurement comparing with the vertebrae of animal
Types of heart disease
- CONGENITAL = present at birth and is rare
- ACQUIRED = develops over time, usually beginning during middle-age and affecting older dogs
What is CVD?
- CHRONIC VALVULAR DISEASE (CVD), most prevalent type of acquired heart disease is also known as mitral regurgitation, mitral valve disease and valvular insuffiency. Small breads
- CVD result in the serious condition, which is called heart failure
What is DCM?
- The second most common kind of acquired canine heart disease, DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY (DCM), causes the muscular walls of the heart to become thin and weak, and the chambers dilate. It inhibits the ability of the heart muscle to contract efficiently. Large breeds of dogs
- DCM result in the serious condition, which is called heart failure
What is ANGIOGRAM?
special x-rays of the heart and it’s vessels
Fluid in the lungs
fluid outside the lungs in the thoracic cavity
fluid in the abdominal cavity
Treatment of HEART DISEASE?
- Dietary changes (drop the salt – sodium chlorine=reduce the blood pressure)
- Exercise restriction
Types of Medication for heart disease?
- Treatment is aimed at improving the efficiency of the heart, easing the workload on the heart, and reducing fluid retention.
- - Vasodilators – widen the blood vessels to reduce the workload on the heart (Enacard). Nitroglycerin Ointment, ACE inhibitors
- - Diuretics – remove excess fluid, relieve edema (Furosemide)
- - Cardiac stimulants (Inotropic) – carrdioglycosides, improve contractility (Epinephrine, Dopamine)
- - Antiarrythmics – restore normal heart rate and rhytm (Quinidine, Lidocaine, Propanolol)
Parts to inspect on PE in order to find heart disease?
- Gums (color)
- Jugular Vein (distention/pulse)
- Chest (lung/heart)
- Abdomen (swelling)
- Legs (swelling/femoral pulse)
DIAGNOSTICS TESTS for heart?
- Chest x-rays (radiographs) – to help determine size and shape of the heart, condition of lungs, and size of blood vessels
- Electrocardiogram (ECG) – evaluate rate and regularity of heartbeat
- Blood and urine sample – check the function of the kidneys, liver and other organs for their involvement in the heart failure process and for the presence of other diseases. Echocardiogram (ultrasound) – visualizing the internal structures of the heart and its ability to function
- *Blood pressure (always in our vessels)
What is FELINE HYPERTROPIC CARDIOMYOPATHY?
Very THICK muscle walls. Sillent killer for cat, animal dies because of using anesthesia
What is FELINE DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY?
Deficiency in Taurine (Amino Acid). Without it cat dies because heart is small. Not often in modern days. Add meat in the cat diet
What is Pericardial Effusion?
Fluid in pericardium
What mean Arterial tone?
arterial resistance (constrict muscles, not flabby)
WHAT IS THE EFFECT OF ACTIVATION OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM?
- Activation of the sympathetic nervous system:
- - Increases heart rate
- - Increases the speed of conduction
- - Decreases the refractory period
- - Increases contractility
- Activation of the parasympathetic system:
- - Decreases heart rate
- - Decreases contractility
- - Reduces the speed of conduction
- - Increases the refractory period
- Dietary management
- -Sodium and weight control
- Bronchodilators-Oxygenation of blood
- Oxygen therapy (40-50% oxygen)-Cage or nasal cannula
- Sedation-Reduce anxiety
POSITIVE INOTROPIC DRUGS
- Improve strength of coordination
- Cardiac glycosides (digitalis) Digoxin - medicine
- - Controversial
- Catecholamines: epinephrine, dopamine, dobutamine
- Pimobendan – newer and safer
- Arrhythmia results in decreased cardiac output
- - Lidocaine (PVC’s and ventricular tachycardia)
What is PVC?
PVC (Premature Ventricular Complex/Contraction).
- Dilate vessels by blocking sympathetic stimulation
- Reduces blood pressure and increases cardiac output Nitroglycerin is a venodilator Enalapril, captopril, benazepril are ACE (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme) inhibitors (Kidney release Renin -> Renin (release from kidney when blood pressure is too low)+compose with proteins in blood stream -> Angiotensin I + enzyme -> Angiotensin II (increases HR and blood pressure)-> Aldosterone
- It calls RAAS system
- Reduce plasma volume, thus decrease preload
- Furosemide (Lasix)
- Make sure animals have water
- Good for treating EDEMA as well
CARDIAC TREATMENT (with stages)
- Stage 1 Disease
- - Asymptomatic
- - No treatment
- Stage 2 Disease- Cough
- - Restrict sodium
- - Diuretic
- - Bronchodilator
- Stage 3 Disease- Cough and increased exercise intolerance (reduce amount of exercising)
- - Sodium restriction
- - Inotropic (Pimo)
- - Diuretic
- - Vasodilators
- Stage 4 DiseaseDyspnea (difficult breathing) at rest
- - Oxygen
- - Diuretics
- - Sedatives
- - Vasodilators