What is nutrition?
- the study of food, nutrients and other substances
- their action, interaction and balance in relation to health and disease
- the process by which the body injects, digests absorbs, transports, utilizes stores and excretes nutrients
- interactions with the genes, genome and epigenetic to regulate metabolism
- the study of the environment and of human behaviour as well
What are some severe deficiency diseases?
- Protein energy malnutrition (PEM)
- Anemia (iron)
- Xerolphtalmia (Vitamin A)
- Goiter (iodine)
- Beriberi (thiamin)
- Pellegra (thiamin)
- Scurvy (Vitamin C)
- Rickets (Vitamin D)
What are the steps of the scientific method?
- observation and question
- hypothesis and Prediction
- results and Interpretations
- (either hypotheisis
- supported or hypothesis not supported)
- if hypothesis supported, them either there is a theory or there will be new observations and questions
- if the hypothesis is not supported, there will be new observations and questions
What are 3 types of epidemiological studies?
- 1. Cross sectional
- 2. Case Control
- 3. Cohort
What is a cross sectional study?
- when researchers look @ what foods a group of people eat and look at how healthy they are
- there is a link between diet an the data collected
- Ex. The Mediterranean diet: Having red wine + olive oil = LOW CVD risk
What is a case control study?
- when researchers match cases by looking @ age, gender
- Ex. People with goiter lack iodine in their diet
What is a cohort study?
- when researchers collect data from a group of people over an interval of a certain period or time (years)
- link found between HIGH CVD risk and HIGH CHOLESTEROL levels
What are the 3 types of Experimental studies?
- 1. Laboratory based animal studies
- 2. Laboratory based in vitro studies
- 3. Human intervention (or clinical trials)
What are laboratory based animal studies?
They are studies that cannot be done on humans therefore are done on animals
What are laboratory based in vitro studies?
Researchers examine the effects of a specific variable on a tissue, cells or molecules
What are human intervention (or clinical trials)?
Studies conducted on humans
What is an essential nutrient?
- it is indispensable
- it performs an identifiable biological function
- "Abnormality" = results when omitted from diet
- required in the diet because the body cannot make it or make enough of it fast enough
What is the Estimated Required Average (EAR)?
- its the amount of a nutrient in the diet needed to meet the average needs of an age/gender group
- GOAL: To avoid deficiency and to maintain long term health (and not just to achieve it)
- determined by experimentation in a healthy population
What is the mandate of the DRI committee?
Meets the rest of 1/2 of the individuals in a group
What is the Recommended dietary allowance (RDA)?
- mean requirement (EAR) + allowance to meet the needs of almost all the healthy people in a group
What is the tolerable upper intake level (UL)?
- its the max intake w/o adverse health effects for group
- no benefit if intake > RDA, AI
What is the adequate intake (AI)?
- not enough info to establish reqt
- mean intake which sustain health in a group
What are the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR)?
- Fat = 20-30% of energy intake
- CHO = 45-65%
- Protein = 10-35%
EARs are designed for what kind of people?
Why are EARs used for groups?
- to plan and procure food supplies for schools
- to establish guidelines for public assistance programs
- to develop new food products by the industry
- to design nutrition education programs
RDAs are meant for what kind of people?
Why are RDAs sued for individuals?