midterm pharm2

  1. recommended age for beginning primary immunizations
    2 weeks old
  2. if immunizations are started and than stopped
    child should receive missed doses
  3. what vaccinations should be administered at the same visit
    hbv vaccine (hep b) dtap ,ipv(polio)MMR VARICELLA AND HIB vaccines can be administered together at separate site injections
  4. why is hepatitis B vaccine important
    • HBV is a pediatric disease the infection occurs in childhood  and adolescence and can lead to fatal consequences from cirrhosis or liver cancer during adulthood
    • it is received within 12 hours of birth 0.5 ml in vatus lateris
    • can be given with dtap mmr hib
    • avoid dorsal gluteal site because it is associated with low antibody seroconversion rates indicating a reduced immune response
  5. clinical manifestations of diptheria
    respiratory nasopharyngitis or obstructive laryngotraceaitis with upper airway obstruction
  6. 5 ways diphtheria vaccinations are made available
    • 1.combo with tetanus and percusis(dtap)and hib vaccines for children younger than 7 
    • 2.in combo with conjugate H.influenza type B
    • 3. combined with tetanus (DT) for children younger than 7 and who have contradictions receiving pertussis
    • 4.in combo with tetanus and acellular pertussis TDAP for children 11 and older
    • 5. single antigen when combined preparations are not indicated
  7. benefit of diptheria vaccination and booster
    boosters given every 10 years for life persist for 10 years or more when given at the correct age
  8. 3 forms of tetanus vaccine
    • tetanus toxoid-used for primary injection
    • tetanus immunoglobin(TIG)
    • tetanus antitoxin-no longer given in the usa
  9. difference between boostrix and adacel
    • boostrix- licensed for people 10=65
    • adacel for people 11=64
  10. age for pertussis
    • all children 6 wks to 6 years of age
    • children with no neurological contradictions
  11. how many forms of pertussis is available in the united states
    1. whole cell pertussis-is prepared from inactivated cells of bordetella pertusis ad contain multipleantigens

    • 2. acellular pertussis and contains one or more immunogens derived from the b pertussis organism. is associated with fewer local and systemic reactions than those occurring w/whole cell
    • first 3 immunizations are given at 2,4,6 months of age w/diptheriaand tetanus
  12. pertussis percautions
    nurses should receive a single dose of TDAP and droplet precautions against droplet contamination
  13. polio changed to inactivated vaccine
    because of rare risk of vaccine-associated polio paralysis from oral polio vaccine
  14. which vaccine increased risk of febrile seizure after administartion
    • should be fully explained risk is 5-12 days in children 
    • 12-23 mths remains low and should be weighed with benifit
  15. decreasing mortality and morbidiy in measles
    vitamin A supplementation
  16. why should mumps vaccine not be given to infants younger than 1 year
    maternal antibodies can interfere with immune response
  17. main goal of rubella vaccine and targeted group
    • protects unborn child 
    • targeted group is all unimmunized prepubertal children and susceptible adolescents  and adult women in their childbearing years
  18. routine immunization schedule for HPV2 or HPV4 in females and males
    • HPV4-for female children and adolescents 11-12 min age  to prevent hpv related cervical cancers
    •           administered IM in 3 separate dosages 2nd dose admin 2 mths after the first 3rd dose given 6 mths after first dose 
    • may be admin to boys 9-26 in 3 dose series to reduce likelihood of genital warts

    hpv2-girls and women 10-25 for prevention of hpv realted to cervical cancers given in 3 dose series
  19. which vaccinations contain live virus
    varicella and MMR
  20. special considerations when given MMR and varicella vaccine
    • should not be given to immunocompromised pts 
    • should be postponed 3 months after newly acquired immunity ex.. blood transfusion maternal antibodies 
    • allergic response to previous vaccination
    • pregnancy contradiction
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midterm pharm2
midterm pharm 2