What is the formal vehicle through which polices are made and affairs of state are conducted-works?
During the start of our country, the introduction of ______ as a cash crop in 1612 improved the economic status of the settlement.
What are some of the reasons many settlers from early America died?
Lack of proper supplies
What was the common initial reason for settlement in North America?
What is the type of government in which power is vested in hereditary kings and queens who govern in the interest of all?
What is the form of government in which power resides in a leader who rules according to self-interest and without regard for individual rights and liberties?
An aristocracy is a government by the _____ in service of the ______.
What form of government is ruled by a tyranny?
What is an oligarchy?
Form of gov. in which you must be wealthy or in some sort of social position to participate.
What form of government gives power to the people,either directly or indirectly, through elected representatives?
Due to ______ of the new nation, direct democracy was unworkable.
the vast size
Direct democracy makes all policies by _____ vote
Indirect democracy makes all policies by _______ to work on behalf of them.
What are the functions of the governement?
Ensure domestic tranquilty
Provide for the common defense
Promoting the general welfare
Secure the blessing of Liberty
What is another term used for democracy?
How did the term republic come to be interchangeable with democracy?
Many citizens at the time were uncomfortable with the term democracy because it conjured up the fears of the people and mob rule.
The addition of the _____ amendment and its emphasis on due process and on equal protection of the law, as well the subsequent passage of laws guaranteeing civil rights and liberties.
What amendment in the constitution has an emphasis on due process and equal protection of law?
The constitution authorized _____ to create a federal judicial system to dispense justice.
The U.S. constitution once regarded a slave as equal to ______ of a white person for purpose of assessing state population.
What is the principle that the government must draw its power fro the consent of the governed.
English political philosopher John Locke's _______ theory,
Social Contract theory
According to John Locke, the social contract theory is . . .
The notion of popular consent is central to the Declaration of Independence.
Individualism: In contrast, in the U.S. system, all individuals are deemed _____ and _____ and _____, as proclaimed in the Declaration of Independence, "with certain unalienable rights"
The Constitution mandated tha the number of members of the House of Representatives should not exceed on for every ______ people.
Immigration to the U.S. peaked in the first decade of the ____.
The second major wave of immigration was until the late ______.
Today, almost ____% of Americans can be classified as immigrants, and many of them are _____.
American Asian population, today, the _______ minorty population
An aging America also imposes a great ______ burden on working Americans, whose proportion in the population is rapidly declining.
Settlers from the Virginia colony southward largely focused on ______.
What are the 4 functions political scientists attribute to ideologies?
Explanation: offered reasons why
Evaluation: standards for evaluating social conditions
Orientation: Orientation towards issues and a position within the world
Political program: Political parties
Conservatives prefer change to come
slowly and in moderation
Conservatives prefer _____ government, especially in regulating the _______.
Do conservatives emphasize fiscal responsibility or not?
Conservatives favor local and _____ action over _____ intervention.
How do social conservatives differ from regular conservatives?
They have a stricter stance on traditional moral teaching.
Liberals foster the development of ______ and the well-being of individuals.
Liberals support well-funded government ______ programs.
Liberals support or oppose government efforts to regulate private behavior or infringe on civil rights and liberties.
Before the Pilgrims traveled to the New World on the Mayflower, the most common reason for settlement in North America was . . .
Which settlement was not founded for primarily religious freedom?
As the population of the New World increased, the town meeting form of government was gradually replaced with an indirect democracy system colonists called?
Which of the following is not a function of American government listed in the Preamble?
C) Promote equality
Which American ideal, central to the Declaration of Independence, was derived from the social contract theory?
C) Popular consent
Which of these is a major contributor to American population growth since 1940?
D) Longer life expectancy
According to political scientists, which of the following is not considered a function of political ideology?
Which political ideology is most associated with a limited role of government in personal and economical affairs?
Congress, as the legislative branch of government, its primary goal is . . .
To make the laws of the nation
What article in the Constitution describes the structure of the legislative branch of government?
What is the term used to describe a two house legislative?
What determines the number of representatives for a state?
What is the age requirement of a representative and a senator?
Rep: equal or greater than 25
Senator: greater or equal to 30
Rep. serve ____ terms.
Rep. are elected by who?
The people of the state
A U.S. census is conducted every . . .
Each state is granted its share of these _____ representatives on the basis of its population.
After the U.S. census, a constitutionally mandated process called ______ adjusts the number of alloted seats to each state.
What is the process of redrawing congressional districts to reflect increase or decrease in the number of seats alloted to a state, as well as population shifts within a state?
Senators are elected for _____ terms
The _____amendment in 1913, provided the voters with direct election of senators.
As interpreted by the Supreme Court, the _______ clause, found in Article 1, section 8, allows Congress to increase its scope of authority, often at the expense of the states and into areas not necessarily envisioned by the Framers.
Necessary and Proper
Where in the Constitution do you find the necessary and proper clause?
Article 1, Sec. 8
What article gives special, exclusive powers to each house?
The House of Reps. has the power to _____ the president, the Senate _____ the ______ officials.
Who has the sole authority to approve major presidential appointments?
The Senate must approve all presidential treaties by ______ vote.
During impeachment trial, the Senate may remove an official with a ______ vote.
What two factors affect the chances of reelection of government officials?
What is incumbency?
Already holding an office
The majority of members who lose their reelection bids are affected by three key factors: . . .
In most states, _____ state legislative draw district lines.
The drawing of congressional districts to produce a particular electoral outcome without regard to the shape of the district.
______ party in the state legislative uses redistricting process as an opportunity to ensure formation of voting districts that protect their majority.
The majority party is the one with the _____ members
The minority party is the one with the ______ members
Define a party caucus
formal gathering of all party members
Each caucus or conference has specialized _____ that fulfill certain tasks.
What is the chamber's most powerful position?
Speaker Of House
Only officer of the House of Reps. mentioned in the Constitution
Speaker of the House
The Speaker of the House traditionally is a member of the _____ party.
Who presides over the House of Reps.?
Speaker of the House
When and who elects the Speaker of the House?
Entire house of reps. elects him at the beginning of every new Congress
The first powerful speaker of the house was . . .
Henry Clay, served 6 terms
Who helps the Speaker of the House schedule proposed legislation for debate on the House floor?
The majority leader
How are the majority and minorty parties elected?
Elected in their own caucuses or conferneces
What is party whip?
Elected by party members, assist the Speaker and majority and minority leaders in their leadership efforts.
Whips and deputy whips also serve as . . .
Distributing word of the party line from leaders to rank-and-file members
Alerting leaders to concerns in ranks
Who is the presiding officer today?
Vice president; Joe Biden
What is the official chair of the Senate, usually the most senior?
President Pro tempore
The Pro tempore presides over . . .
Since presiding over the Senate can be a rather perfunctory duty, neither the vice president nor the president pro tempore actually perform the task often. Instead, this is handed to . . .
Junior Member of the majority party,
An individual Senator can bring all work on the floor to a halt indefinitely through a _______ unless _______ of the senators vote to cut him/her off.
What type of committee are the first and the last places to which bills go?
What are the 4 types of committees?
The establishment of committees allow for . . .
To what committees are bills refereed for consideration?
What are joint committees en-charge of?
Conducting investigations or special studies, usually focus on major matters
What committee are created for reconciliation of differences in bills passed by the House and Senate?
Which committee is appointed temporarily for specific purposes?
What is a petition that gives a majority of the House the authority to bring an issue to the floor in the face of committee inaction?
A discharge petition signed by a ______ of the House can force bills out of a House committee.
A committee chair can opt to kill a bill by
Refusing to schedule hearings for it
What is the limit of years one can hold a committee chair?
Article 1, sec. 7, details the procedures by which ______ can make laws and raise revenue.
Who are the only ones who can formally submit a bill for congressional consideration?
A member of the House or Senate
What committee regulates access to the floor for legislation approved by other standing committees?
Committee of Rules
The committee usually refers a bill to one of its
After the committees have reviewed the bill, it passes to
The Committee of rules
The _____ given to a bill determines ______ on the floor debate and specifies what type of amendments, if any, may be attached to the bill.
Rule from the Committee of Rules
Once the Committee of Rules considers the bill, it is
Added to the calender
After the a bill is added to calendar by the Committee of Rules, the ______ has to take a vote.
Entire House of Reps
Unlike the House of Reps., the Senate can hold a bill by ______ or _______.
Senators may end a filibuster in only one way. _____ of them must sign a motion for cloture(mechanism requiring the vote of ______senators to cut off a debate).
After a cloture motion is passed, members may spend no more than _____ hours debating the legislation at issue.
What is a hold in the Senate?
Procedure by which a Senator asks to be informed before a particular bill is brought to the floor.
Once a bill has been approved by the Senate and the House, who has the final decision?
A president has the power of _____, turning down a bill.
The president can wait _______ days, at the end of which a bill becomes law by default without his signature, if congress is ______.
Still in session
Reps often seek appropriations know as pork. Define Pork.
Legislation that allows reps to bring in money and jobs to their district in the form of public works programs, military bases, or other programs.
What is programatic requests?
Funds from appropriations bill designated for specific projects within a state or congressional district
Congress an override a president's veto by
2/3 vote from each chamber
What resolution called for authorization from congress for the sending of troops overseas?
War Powers Resolution
Under the War Powers Resolution, the president must withdraw troops within _____ days unless congress votes to declare war.
What is senatorial courtesy?
A process by which presidents generally allow senators from the state in which a judicial vacancy occurs to block a nomination by a simple registering their objections.
A trustee is a person who
is elected, who listens to the opinions of constituents and then can be trusted to use his or her own best judgement to make final decisions.
A delegate voted based on his ______, not his ______.
Own opinion on the matter
A politico acts as trustee or delegate, depending on
the issue at hand
When a member of congress could give two shits about a bill at hand, he can choose to _____ otherwise known as . . .
Vote trading, my vote for your support on something else I want
A party whip is
C) any new member of the majority party in the House.
The practice of halting Senate actions on a bill though unlimited debate or long speeches is called a
Which of the following is NOT a power of Congress that limits the presidents power?
Under article 1, which of the following powers is not granted to Congress?
B) Declaring War
The framers were troubled by the manner the president was elected, their solution was
The Electoral College, originally just temporary
What is the age requirement for a president?
What is the residency requirement for a president?
What is the length of a presidential term?
The president can only be impeached on the charges of . . .
Other High Crimes or Misdemeanors
A president can be formally impeached only with a _____ vote of the House and a _____ vote of the Senate.
________ ran successfully in four elections as Americans fought _______ and then _______. Despite his popularity, negative reactions to his long tenure in office lead to a ratification of the ______ amendment. Limiting presidency to 2 two yr terms.
Frankin D. Roosevelt
The Great Depression
What amendment limits presidency to 2 2 yrs. terms in his life?
Due the Watergate incident case, Nixon justified his denial to provide evidence with what implied presidential power?
What is executive privilege?
An implied presidential power that allows the president to refuse to disclose information regarding confidential conversations or national security to Congress or the judiciary
What amendment allowed the president to select a vice president?
25th, with the approval of both Houses
Who can deem the the president unfit for duty?
The vice president and a majority of his Cabinet
Does the president have the power to remove any of his appointees at will?
What article specifies few presidential powers?
President can convene either or both houses of Congress on . . .
The president requires _____ of Congress approval for treaty authorization.
What as a significant event in history in which a president underestimated the need of Congressional support for treat approval?
The Treat of Versailles by President Woodrow Wilson.
What allows the president to make agreements without Senate advise or approval due to highly sensitive information?
Who proposed the New Deal? and what was it?
Franklin D. Roosevelt
A package of bold and controversial programs designed to invigorate the failing American economy
Jefferson justified his expansion of the size of our nation through the
Louisiana Purchase in 1803
Who was the first vice president and what did he think about the position?
Presidents select vice presidents largely based on ______
Balance, give themselves the supplement the people think he lacks
President Obama elected vice president Joe Biden because
He lacked foreign policy experience,
The National Security Council advised the _____ on ______matters
American military and foreign policy
The National Security Council is composed of
Secretaries of state, defense, and treasury
Chair of Joint Chiefs of Staff and CIA director also participate
Franklin D. Roosevelt broke traditions by introducing _____ to Congress.
His first legislative package
Argued, "It is the duty of the President to propose and it is the privilege of the Congress to dispose."
Recommend presidents begin making bold moves in the beginning of their election. Why?
Voter support drops.
Due to the Great Depression, FDR was given the opportunity to involve himself in the congressional budget process, just as he inserted himself into the legislative process. How?
Created the Bureau of Budget
Later known as Office of Management and Budget
What are some responsibility of the Office of Management and Budget?
Preparing annual budget proposals
Assessing the cost of the president's proposal
Reviewing Process, budget and program proposals for the Executive
Who term described an executive ability to fire public-office holders of the defeated political party and replace them with party loyalists?
The Spoils system was replaced the _____ system. Define it.
System of employment based on qualifications not loyalty to a party
Who introduced the Merits system, yet did not pass?
James A. Garfield
As a result of James A. Garfield's death, Congress prompted to pass the Civil Rights Reform Act in 1883, commonly known as the . . .
The Pendelton Act established ______ replacing the ______ system.
Abraham Lincoln established the Dept. of ______ as the nation geared for war(Civil War).
What are entities created by Congress outside the major executive department?
Independent Regulatory Commissions
Commission members from Independent Regulatory Commissions are appointed by the ______, jobs with ______terms
Commission members from Independent Regulatory Commissions once appointed, cannot be removed unless . . .
they fail to up hold their oaths of office
Bureaucrats are driven by . . .
Bureaucracies also differ from businesses because it is hard to determine . . .
To whom bureaucracies are responsible.
Independent regulatory commissioners are _______to direct political influence once they take office.
Bureaucracy agencies fall into 4 general categories. Name them.
Independent Executive Agencies
Independent Regulatory Commissions.
Independent Regulatory Commissions were created by _____
Each Independent Regulatory Commission has _____ selected by the _______, confirmed by the _______, for fixed, staggered terms to increase the chances of a bipartisan board.
Government Corporations are established by _____ to . . .
Perform functions that private businesses can provide.
Often formed when private companies don't want to invest due to minimal financial incentives
What act was liberalized to allow employees to run for public office in nonpartisan elections, contribute money to political organizations, and campaign for or against candidates in partisan elections. So long it is not done on duty
The Hatch Act of 1993
When agencies are non compliant, they can use ______, a quasi-judicial process in which bureaucratic agency settles disputes between two parties in a manner similar to the way the courts solve disputes.
With the approval of _____, the president can reorganize the bureaucracy.
______ possesses the authority to _____ or _____ departments and agencies, transfer agency functions, and expand or contract bureaucratic discretion.
Bureaucrats appear before _______ committees on a regular basis to inform members of progress, activities, ongoing investigations, and budget requests.
To help Congress oversee the bureaucracy's financial affairs, in 1921 Congress created the _________, now called the ________.
General Accounting Office
Government Accountability Office
Iron triangle are made up of
C) Bureaucratic agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees
What is the primary goal of the spoils system?
To reward political allies
Which act of Congress established a merit system of federal employment?
Bureaucratic agencies representing areas of national interest whose heads are appointed directly by the pres. are known as . . .
The president can check the power of the bureaucracy by
Issuing executive orders
_______ must be published in the Federal Register in order to become law.
Why did Congress initially create independent regulatory commissions such as the Interstate Commerce Commission?
To regulate specific economic interests
Why were inter-agency councils created?
To facilitate policy making in complex issue areas
POLS 2302 Test 1
American Governement-Roots and Reform, O'Connor, Sabato, and Yanus, 2014 Elections and Updates Edition
Based on study guide