Psych Learning

  1. your's doing great!!
  2. You got this!!
  3. what is learning
    the acquisition of new knowledge, skills, or responses from experience that results in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner
  4. habituation
    a general process in which repeated or prolonged exposure to a stimulus results in gradual reduction in responding.
  5. sensitization
    a simple form of learning that occurs when presentation of a stimulus leads to an increased response to a later stimulus
  6. classical conditioning
    a type of learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally produces a response
  7. unconditioned stimulus
    something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism
  8. unconditioned response
    a reflexive reaction that is reliably produced by an unconditioned stimulus
  9. a previously neutral stimulus that produces a reliable response in an organism after being paired with the US
    conditioned stimulus
  10. conditioned response
    a reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produced by the conditioned stimulus
  11. acquisition
    the phase when the CS and US are presented together
  12. second-order conditioning
    a CS is paired with a stimulus that became associated with the US in an earlier procedure
  13. extinction
    the gradual elimination of a learned response that occurs when the CS is repeatedly presented without the US
  14. spontaneous recovery
    the tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period
  15. generalization
    the CR is observed even though the CS is slightly different from the CS used during acquisition
  16. discrimination
    the capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli
  17. biological preparedness
    a propensity for learning particular kinds of associations over others
  18. operant conditioning
    a type of learning in which the consequences of an organism's behavior determine whether it will be repeated in the future
  19. law of effect
    behavior followed by satisfying state of affairs tend to be repeated while those that produce an unpleasant state of affairs are less likely to be repeated
  20. operant behavior
    behavior that an organism produces that has some impact on the enviornment
  21. positive reinforcement
    rewarding stimulus is presented
  22. negative reinforcement
    unpleasant stimulus is removed
  23. positive punishment
    an unpleasant stimulus is presented
  24. negative punishment
    a pleasant stimulus is removed
  25. fixed-interval schedule
    an operant conditioning principle in which reinforcers are presented at fixed-time periods, provided that the appropriate response is made
  26. variable-interval schedule
    behavior is reinforced based on the average time that has expired since the last reinforcement
  27. fixed-ratio schedule
    reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been made
  28. variable-ratio schedule
    delivery of reinforcement is based on a particular average number of responses
  29. intermittent reinforcement
    some of the responses made are followed by reinforcement
  30. shaping
    Learning that results from the reinforcement of successive steps to a final desired behavior
  31. latent learning
    something is learned, but is not manifested as a behavioral change until sometime in the future
  32. cognitive map
    a mental representation of the physical features of the environment
  33. observational learning
    a condition in which learning takes place by watching the actions of the others
  34. implicit learning
    learning that takes place largely independent of awareness of both the process and the products of information acquisition
  35. a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience
  36. what did pavlov study?
    dogs and saliva -classical conditioning
  37. what are the steps of classical conditioning
  38. What is the information theory and who proposed it
    rescorla and wagner, you're learning that the conditional stimulus is signal for the conditioned response
  39. biological mechanism involved in classical conditioning
  40. what is backwards conditioning
    US proceeds the CS
  41. what is simultaneous conditioning
    CS and US presented at the same time
  42. what is delayed conditioning
    CS presented at least until the US is presented
  43. what is traced conditioning
    CS is discontinued before the US is presented
  44. what is the best US/CS pair
    delayed conditioning
  45. Higher order conditioning
    new conditioned stimulus gets paired w/ a previous stimulus
  46. Who study phobias
    Watson and Little Albert
  47. What was Watson's study about
    white rat/ loud noise- associates with white rats with noise, little Albert became afraid of white rats
  48. What did Mary Cover Jones study
    counter conditioning-used rabbits, replaced conditioned response fear w/ a new response (relaxation)
  49. what did thorndike use?
    cat puzzle boxes
  50. What BF skinner study
  51. Issues with punishment
    • behavior may temporarily inhibited¬†
    • punishment does not teach a more adaptable response
    • punishment may be reinforcing
    • punishment can arouse fear, anger, frustration, leading replication, turning out, or running away
  52. Example of shaping
    rat and bar, praising successive approxiations
  53. what is chaining
    starting with the last behavior of a chain- which has a reward
  54. what is partial reinforcement effect
    it takes longer for a partially "reinforced behavior to extinguish"
  55. What did Edward Tolman study?
    cognitive maps (rats and maps), latent learning occurs
  56. What did Bandura study?
    observational learning, we learn by watching others- bobo doll study
  57. the components of observational learning
    attention, retention, reproduct, motivation
Card Set
Psych Learning
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