anatomy lab exam practice

  1. To ensure optimal performance from your microscope , the lenses must be periodically ___ and __ if necessary.
    checked; cleaned
  2. to test the ocular for cleanliness, ______ it between your fingers while looking at it
  3. STEP 1
    After plugging in your microscope, turn on the ___ using the ____ ___ switch
    illuminator; dial power
  4. step 2
    what should you do if the  scanning objective is not in place?
    • rotate the nose piece so that the 4x lens clicks into position
    • .the objective will be perpendicular to the stage
  5. STEP 3
    swing the stage clip out to the left and place your slide so that it lies flat on the mechanical stage. Center the specimen beneath the __ objective by ___ the stage___ nobs
    scanning; rotating; travel
  6. STEP 4
    Turn the __ focus knob to __ the stage to its ___height
    coarse; raise; maximum
  7. STEP 5
    __ through the oculars., Rotate the ___ knob so the condenser is 1 or 2 mm below its highest position. the circle of light is the microscopic ___ of __.
    look;condenser; field, view
  8. STEP 6
    when your eyes are on the field, slowly rotate the __ knob to __ the stage. when the sample comes into view, use the __ focus knob to ____ the image
    coarse, lower; sharpen
  9. STEP 7
    light intensity can be adjusted with what?

    what should the light intensity be the same as?
    iris diaphragm control lever.

    light intensity should be similar to room lighting
  10. STEP 8
    How do you move the specimen side to side and up and down
    mechanical stage
  11. what is meant by working distance
    the amount of space between slide and objective when the specimen is in focus
  12. what is an ocular?
    eyepieces that that magnify the image transmitted by the objective lens
  13. what is an objective?
    a large single lens that enlarges the specimen
  14. adjustable knob on the head of the microscope that changes the magnification of the objective through a continuous range with no image black out
    magnification black out
  15. describe STAGE PLATE
    circular plate of glass above the base for placement of the specimen
  16. the supportive platform of the microscope
  17. the region that connects the base to the head
  18. the support for the ocular objective and objective lenses
  19. circular knob on either side of the arm that provides coarse focus
    focus knob
  20. a rotatable ring at the base of the left ocular that brings this lens into focus simultaneously with the right ocular
    diopter ring
  21. a plate to which the objectives are attached, it rotates so that the objectives  of different magnifications can be used
    revolving nose piece
  22. substage lens that directs a narrow beam of light concentrated light to the objective to enhance resolution
  23. what is depth of focus (depth of field)
    it determines how much background or foreground area is simultaneously in focus
  24. platform which slide is placed and moved
    mechanical stage
  25. what happens to the depth of focus when the magnification is increased?
    depth of focus will decrease
  26. the __ ring ensures that once a specimen is clearly focused for a particular observer's right eye, it will also be in focus for the left eye
  27. How does an objective's numerical aperture relate to resolution
    the higher the N.A number the more light enters the lens, and the greater the resolution
  28. N.A or numerical aperture refers to what?
    the light gathering ability of the lens
  29. illuminator
    an electric light source inside of the base that provides illumination for the compound lens system
  30. what happens to the working distance when the magnification is increased
    working distance decreases
  31. which objective should you place in the vertical position when storing the compound microscope
    10x / scan
  32. Image Upload 1
    what is happening during this phase
    • -cytokinesis takes places
    • -cytoplasmic contents is apportioned to each new daughter cell
    • -when cytoplasmic division has ended the daughter cells enters interphase
    • -the cell grows a to the same size as the original cell
    • -mitosis can begin
  33. Image Upload 2
    what is happening during this phase
    • -chromatids separate from one another
    • once they are all seprated they are called chromosomes
    • cleavage furrow begins to appear
  34. cleavage furrow
    is the indentation of the cell's surface that begins the progression of cleavage, by which animal and some algal cells undergo cytokinesis, the final splitting of the membrane, in the process of cell division
  35. Image Upload 3
    • -centrioles have completed the migration to opposite side of the cell
    • equator or meta phase = when sister -chromatids are aligned on opposites of the mid-line
  36. what is histology
    the study of tissues, groups of cells that together accomplish what cells in isolation could not
  37. what does the epithelium cover
    the outer surface of the body and all organs, and lines all tubes, cavities and most organs
  38. name the features of epithelial tisues
    • -all epithelial tissues are characterized by an apical (free) surface, that is the cells border on open space, such as those facing the lumen (interior space) of a hollow organ 
    • cells are closely packed together
    • there is a complete abscence of blood cells
    • epithelial tissue lies upon a membane known as basal lamina
  39. describe what a squamous cell looks like
    flat and thin
  40. describe what a cuboidal cell looks like
    roughly cubed shaped. in 2D view they almost appear square
  41. descibe what a columnar cell looks like
    they are taller than they are wide and take on a rectangular appearance when cut lengthwise
  42. -describe what transitional epithelium looks like

    -where is found?
    the shape varies between cuboidal and squamous. this cell is multilayered and changes , for example depending on if the urinary bladder is distended by urine 

    it it found exclusively in the urinary system
  43. basement membrane what does it do
    it stabilizes the structure, it is not living
  44. arrangement if epithelial cell layers: 

    simple epithelium
    single layer of cells
  45. aarangement of epithelial cell layers 
    stratified epithelium
    2 or more layer of cells
  46. appears to have several layers, but is actually composed of a single layer, with all cells toughing the basal lamina
    pseudostratified epithelium
  47. simple squamous epithelium  
    what is its function?
    the single layer of flat cells is well adapted to rapid transfer of fluids and solutes (filtration and absorption through the single celled walls of capillaries) and diffusion (as of respiratory gases through air sac walls into and out of the blood stream).
  48. simple squamous epithelium 
    name the 2 locations this tissue is found in
    (1) endothelium: lines the heart and all blood and lymphatic vessels  

    (2) Mesothelium: found in the walls of air sacs (alveoli of the lungs and the glomerular capsules of the kidney.
    name this tissues location
    lines the kidney tubules and ducts of glands
    name the location:
    the g.i tract, beginning at the stomach and the walls of ducts and many types of glands
    secretion of digestive juices and ABSORPTION of nutrients and water salts, the mucus  via globlet cells and the mucous membranne formed by the epithelium and underlying connective tissue LUBRICATES & PROTECTS
    describe what it looks like
    • sngle oval nuclei near the surface contains microvilli that looks like a "brush border 
    • - modifid columnar cells resemble champagne because of the accumulated mucus in the upper part of the cell
    Fallopian tubes, uterus and some of the small airways (bronchioles) of the lungs
  54. Cilliated simple columnar epithelium 
    • sweeping action of cillia moves eggs cells through he uterine tube after ovulation into uterus. 
    • the cillia is very important in the airways and helps immune system response to inhaled particles, moving them-along with mucus that traps them-away from the lungs and into the throat

    most airways of the upper and lower respiratory tracts
  56. pseudostratified cilliated columnar epthelium 
    cilliated form sweeps away mucus bound debris in the respiratory tract
  57. stratified squamous epithelium
    location of the keratinized and non keratinized
    keratinized form of the stratified form of stratied squamous: skin (epidermis) 

    non keratinized form: mucous membrane lining of mouth, pharynx, esophagus vagina and anus
  58. stratified squamous epithelium  
    protection against water loss mechanical stress and microbial invasion
  59. transitional epithelium
    lining of the bladder and ureters and proximal urethra
  60. transitional epithelium 
    allows urinary organs to expand without rupturing
  61. Connective tissue- ADIPOSE TISSUE 

    shock absorbing pad around the heart kidneys and eyeball
  62. connective tissue
    adipose tissue 
    • supports and protects organs; insulatresagaindt heat loss through the skin acts as an energy reserve
    • it also stores the maximum amount of triglycerides
  63. connective tissue is the most__ tissue in the bodyy and appears in many __ forms
    abundant; diverse
  64. bone/ osseous tissue
    makes up the rigid infrastructure that supports the body as whole and protects internal organs
  65. ligaments
    what type of connective tissue is it?
    what do they do?
    • dense connective tisssue
    • bind bones together
  66. tendons
    what type of connective tissue is it 
    what is the function
    • dense connective tissue
    • connects muscle to bone
     areolar  tissue
    soft packing matrial that surrounds and cushions organs
  68. adipose tissue
    insuates and cushions organs and is a storage depot for fat
  69. hempoietic
    blood forming tissue, produces blood cells
  70. general characteristics of connective tissue
    • cells are spaced relatively apart
    • rich blood supply (except tendons and cartilage) 
    • ics is abundant 
    • never exposed to cavity enviroment
    part of the of the subcutaneous tissue ( beneath the skin, and is found as a packing material around organs
  72. areolar connective tssue 
    STRONG ( due to presence of collagenous fibers) and elastic ( due to fibers containing elastin) SUPPORT
  73. Image Upload 4
    NAME this cell 
    state its function
    state its location
    • -name: adipocyte
    • -function: supports protects and insulates organs against heat loss though the skin, acts as an energy reserve 
    • -location: follows distribution pattern of aereolar connective tissue ( heart, kidney's , eyeball and membranes external to he stomach and intestines
  74. Reticular tissue 
    supportive framework of the spleen,lymph nodes, dead or worn out blood cells in spleen
  75. reticular tissue 
    • supports organs internally
    • the fibers filter microbes in lymph nodes and dead or worn out blood cells in spleen
  76. what is this 
    Image Upload 5
    reticular tissue
  77. what is stroma
    huge network of reticular fibers found in an organ having a supportive function
  78. dense regular connective tissue 
    reticular region of the skin's dermis, peritoneum of bone, perchOndrium cartilage fibrous layer of PERICARDIUM
    the nonparallel arrangement of collagen fibers strongly resist pulling forces in many diecctions
  80. what is this 
    Image Upload 6
    dense regular tissue
  81. hylaline cartilage 
    respiratory tract ( nose, larynx, trachea and bronchi); ends of bones, joints; embryonic and fetal skeleton
  82. hyaline cartiilage
    provides support, flexibility and protection, provides joints with slippery surface during movement
  83. what is this 
    Image Upload 7
    hyaline cartilage
  84. fibrous cartilage 
    intervertebral disc, menisci
  85. fibrous cartilage
    function: provides support for the joints it holds together
  86. Image Upload 8 
    what is this
    fibrous cartilage
  87. elastic catilage 
    epiglottis external part of the ear
  88. elastic cartilage 
    provides strength and elasiticity
  89. what is this 
    Image Upload 9
    elastic cartilage
  90. blood smear 
    plasma blood vessels and heart chambers
  91. blood smear 
    • rbcs: transport o2 and co2 throughout the body 
    • wbcs: phagocytosis and antibody production 
    • platelets: blood clotting
  92. name and distinguish the cells within the blood smear 
    Image Upload 10
    rbc wbc platelet
  93. smooth muscle location and its  second name 
    describe what it looks like
    • within the walls of internal organs and blood vessels  and id nonstriated 
    • thin and spindle shaped with tapered ends and a single central nucleus
    • -visceral muscle
  94. skeletal muscle 
    attatched to bones via tendons except facial muscles
  95. skeletal muscle tissue 
    body movements, maintaining posture, protection of underlying structures and generation of heat
  96. what is this 
    Image Upload 11
    smooth muscle tissue
  97. smooth muscle tissue 
    movement, constriction of blood vessels and airways
  98. smooth muscle location
    wall of stomach, intestines, urinary bladder, blood vessels airways and the iris of the eye
  99. nervous tissue location
    nervous system
  100. nervous tissue function
    neurons generate nerve impulses that influence muscles and glands, neuralgia provide neurons with nutritional, antimicrobial and physical support
Card Set
anatomy lab exam practice
a&p lab exam