- to (a place)
- Followed by motion verb (e.g. ikimasu)
- Turns sentence into a question
- Always at the end (after verb)
- Indicates preceding noun is dir object of transitive verb
- Turns preceding noun into subj of sentence
- Place N followed by で indicates where the action takes place
- Ex/ Ginza de kamera o kaimasu
- Indicates strong expectation of agreement
- Ex/ Yoku kissaten e ikimasu, ne?
- ([You] go to the coffee shop often, don't you?)
- Highlights preceding noun as subj of sentence
- Mandatory with interrogative noun such as "nani" with existence verb
- Ex/ Nani ga arimasu ka?
- Can replace を to indicate also/too
- Ex/ Mainichi teepo o kikimasu. Rekoodo mo kikimasu.
- Clause relational meaning "although"
- If the clause isn't stated, it can mean "why do you ask" or "how do you know"
- Ex/ Ashita kurasa ga arimasu ka? Iie, arimasen kedo....
- After place N, indicates where something is situated or exists.
- Ex/ Doko ga gakkoo ni imasu ka?
- Emphatic sentence particle at end (after verb) giving warning, new info, assurance, etc.
- Corresponds to "certainly", "you know", "I tell you", ....
- Ex/ Soo desu ne. ([Yes,] isn't it?)
- Ex/ Soo desu yo. ([Yes,] it is.)
- Ex/ Koko ni inu to neko to tori ga imasu.
- Sentence particle at end which expresses admiration, surprise, etc.
- Ex/ Joozu desu nee. (How proficient [you] are!)