Pyruvate oxidation involves __ transport of pyruvate & __ into the mitochondrial matrix.
Within the mitochondrial matrix, __ complex transforms pyruvate into __
pyruvate dehydrogenase; acetyl CoA
Pyruvate is oxidized to __ & __ is released. __ is reduced to __, capturing energy.
acetate; CO2; NAD+; NADH
Some energy is stored by combining __ & __ to form acetyl CoA.
acetate; CoA (coenzyme A)
all steps in pyruvate oxidation
- Within the mitochondrial matrix, (3 enzyme complex) pyruvate removes carbon as CO2 (decarboxylation reaction)
- Pyruvate is oxidized to acetate.
- NAD+ is reduced to NADH + H+ (2 electrons), capturing energy
- addition of CoA is combined with acetate yields acetyl CoA
(page 40 on slide)
products of pyruvate oxidation
- 2 CO2
- 2 NADH (4 total electrons)
- 2 acetyl CoA (electron rich)
__ from pyruvate oxidation enters the citric acid cycle.
acetyl group of acetyl CoA
inputs into the citric acid cycle
- acetyl CoA
- electron carriers (NAD+, FAD, GDP)
(Energy captured by electron carriers. Electron carriers must be oxidized in order for citric acid cycle to continue.)
outputs of the citric acid cycle
- reduced electron carriers
(The end result of the citric acid cycle is highly oxidized. All carbons have been released as waste.)
The acetyl group & __ form citrate (citric acid)
oxaloacetate (highly oxidized)
What happens in the citric acid cycle? Be able to recognize what happens in each step on page 45 - 49 on slide
- Each step is catalyzed by an enzyme
- CoA is removed and recycled
- redox reaction and decarboxylation
- oxidation produces of NADH & CO2
- removal of CoA & substrate phosphorylation (production of ATP)
- more redox reactions
products of the citric acid cycle
highly oxidized and carboxylized
Any type of food you eat (proteins, complex carbs, fats) will eventually lead to __
the citric acid cycle
(page 52 on slide)