Other Systems_ALL

  1. Dysphagia - Aspiration - what is easier to aspire liquids or solids?
    • Thin liquids
    • Tx - thicken liquids
  2. Crohn’s disease - pain referral pattern; what receives symptoms?
    • Refers pain to pelvic area + hip
    • Received by passing gas
  3. Pancreatitis - made worse by what?
    • Walking
    • Lying supine
  4. Hiatal hernia - 3
    • Hiatal - shoulder pain
    • Avoid Valsalva maneuver
    • DO NOT exercise in supine
  5. Hernias - pain referral patterns - hiatal; femoral; inguinal; umbilical
    • Hiatal - shoulder pain
    • Femoral - lateral pelvic wall
    • Inguinal - groin pain
    • Umbilical - around umbilical ring in mid to lower abdomen
  6. S/S of dehydration - 7
    • Postural hypotension
    • Poor skin turgor
    • HA
    • Irritability
    • Incoordination
    • Lethargy
    • Disorientation
  7. Infectious mononucleosis (Mono) S/S - 9
    • Fever
    • Sore throat
    • Swollen lymph glands in neck/armpits
    • Swollen tonsils
    • HA
    • Fatigue
    • mm weakness
    • Night sweats
    • Swollen spleen
  8. Stress incontinence - describe; what is weak; what is normal
    • Loss of urine w/INC abdominal P: coughing, sneezing, and laughing
    • Weak - pelvic floor
    • Normal - bladder
    • Tx - pelvic floor exercises
  9. Urge incontinence - 2
    • Overwhelming urgency & frequency of voiding
    • Detrusor overactivity (spasm)
  10. Overflow incontinence - 3
    • Frequent urination or constant dribbling
    • Intra-bladder P exceeds urethra’s capacity to remain closed
    • LMN - disruption of activity of detrusor mm
  11. Detrusor mm - how it presents in urge & overflow incontinence
    • Urge - overactive detrusor mm
    • Overflow - under-active detrusor mm
  12. Functional incontinence - 2
    • Difficulty reaching toilet in time
    • Bladder functions normally, however mind-body connection is disrupted
  13. Kegels - initial; later
    • Initial - sitting on toilet, stop & hold flow for 5s during urination - INITIAL BC GRAVITY ASSISTED
    • Later - supine, sphincter control for 3s & 10 s holds
  14. Renal & urethral pain - 4
    • Felt in T10 & L1 dermatome
    • Aching & dull in nature
    • DOESN’T change w/position
    • (+) Murphy’s percussion test - PHYSICIAN REFERRAL
  15. Metabolic Syndrome (Syndrome X) - 3 or more of following S/S
    • Cluster of risk factors INC likelihood of developing heart disease, stroke or type 2 diabetes
    • BP - > 135/85
    • Blood glucose >100
    • Low HDL - men >40; women >50
    • Elevated triglycerides
    • Ab obesity - men >40”; women >35”
  16. Addison's disease
    Define 
    Early signs
    Look
    What metabolic changes?
    • Under secretion of cortisol by adrenal cortex 
    • Early S/S - Nonspecific weakness & fatigue (asthenia)
    • Look - Hyperpigmentation of skin & mucous membranes (JFK was tan)
    • Fluid/electrolyte imbalances - INC potassium (hyperkalemia) + DEC sodium (Hyponatrimia)
  17. DEC in cortisol (adrenal insufficiency)
    Name disease
    What metabolic abnormalities - 2
    • Addison's
    • Inability to regulate potassium (K) + sodium
    • Hyperkalemia
    • Hyponatremia - DEC sodium in blood
  18. Addison’s & PT safety - 4
    • Orthostatic hypotension
    • INC bone fx
    • Osteoporosis
    • Tendon rupture
  19. Cushing's syndrome - Define + S/S - 11
    • Oversecretion of cortisol by adrenal cortex
    • Moon face
    • Truncal obesity
    • Cervical fat pad (“buffalo hump”)
    • Muscle wasting/weakness
    • Osteoporosis
    • HT
    • Easy bruising
    • Excessive facial hair
    • Slow wound healing
  20. Tx for Cushing’s syndrome - 2
    • Radiation therapy
    • Chemotherapy
  21. Hypothyroidism - S/S - 7
    • Cold intolerance
    • Weight gain
    • Excessive fatigue/lethargy
    • Dry skin, hair, nails
    • HA
    • Peripheral edema + neuropathy
    • Proximal weakness
    • INC TSH
  22. Hypothyroidism - PT + red flags - 6
    • Risk of Rhabdomyolysis
    • Exercise intolerance
    • Weakness
    • Apathy
    • Exercise-induced myalgia
    • Reduced CO
  23. Hyperthyroidism - S/S - 6 (general)
    • Exophthalmia
    • Heat intolerance & INC sweating
    • Weight loss & inability to gain weight - w/INC appetite 
    • Hypereflexia
    • INC BP + INC HR (tachycadia)
    • DEC TSH
  24. Hyperthyroidism - MSK changes - 4
    • Myopathy
    • Weakness
    • Fatigue
    • Atrophy
  25. Hyperthyroidism - cardiopulmonary changes - S/S - 7
    • INC HR - tachycardia
    • INC BP
    • INC RR
    • Palpitations
    • Dysrhythmias
    • Dyspnea - breathlessness
    • Fatigue
  26. Hyperthyroidism - CNS changes - 4
    • Tremors
    • Hyperkinesias
    • Nervousness
    • INC DTRs
  27. Grave’s Disease - S/S + PT - 4
    • Hyperthyroidism
    • Goiter
    • Avoid cardiac stress - pts have tachycardia
    • No hot aquatics - heat intolerance
  28. Tx for thyroid diseases
    Radioactive iodine
  29. Hyperparathyroidism - S/S - 9
    • INC PTH = osteoclastic activity - breaks down calcitonin = INC calcium in blood
    • Osteopenia/fractures
    • Proximal weakness
    • Glove/stocking sensory loss
    • Arthralgia/myalgia
    • Drowsiness
    • Confusion/memory loss
    • Pancreatitis
    • Gout
    • Kidney stones
  30. Hypoparathyroidism - S/S - 7
    • Low levels of calcium in blood = MM cramps/mm twitching (tetany)
    • Neck stiffness
    • Seizures
    • Cardiac arrhythmias
    • Paresthesias (tingling finger tips & mouth)
    • Renal stones
    • Chvostek's sign (twitching of facial mm w/tapping of facial nerve in front of ear)
  31. Calcitonin - does what? released by what?
    • Assist w/building of bone (osteoblastic activity)
    • RELEASED BY THYROID (NOT parathyroid)
  32. DM - Type I - describe; result of what?
    • Insulin-dependent / Juvenile onset
    • Loss of pancreatic beta-cell function + absolute insulin deficiency
  33. DM - Type II - describe; result of what?
    • Non-insulin-dependent / Adult onset
    • Impaired ability of tissues to use insulin (insulin resistance)
  34. DM - Complications of DM - 7
    • Retinopathy
    • Neuropathy
    • Nephropathy
    • CVD
    • PVD
    • Atherosclerosis
    • Impaired wound healing
  35. DM - Foot care program for diabetes - 6
    • Wash (do not soak) feet daily in warm water
    • After wash - petroleum jelly/lotion - NOT between toes
    • Cut toenails straight across by a podiatrist
    • Wear clean, white socks w/minimal wrinkles
    • Wide jogging or walking shoes
    • Use different shoes or alternate shoes each day
  36. DM - hypo vs hyperglycemia - blood glucose #
    • Hypoglycemia <70
    • Hyperglycemia >180-200
  37. DM - S/S of hypoglycemia - 8
    • Profuse Sweating
    • Shaking
    • Disoriented
    • Faint
    • Unresponsive
    • Seizures
    • Poor coordination/unsteady gait
    • Trouble concentrating
  38. DM - S/S of Hyperglycemia - 6
    • Polyuria - frequent but scan urination
    • Urine - bright yellow & "sweet" smelling
    • Fruity breath odor
    • Shakiness
    • Skin is dry
    • Unusual thirst (polydipsia)
    • Italics = early signs
  39. DM - Ketoacidosis - 6
    • Occurs w/Type 1 only - ketone bodies in blood for energy source; broken down into acid
    • Fruity breath odor
    • Dry mouth
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Confusion
    • Eventual loss of consciousness
    • MEDICAL EMERGENCY
  40. DM - Hypoglycemia - PT response - pt awake/pt unresponsive
    • Pt awake - Provide sugar - juice, candy, etc.
    • Pt unresponsive - Seek immediate medical tx - glucagon injection or intravenous glucose
  41. DM - At what blood glucose level should PT give carb snack & retest pt after 15 minutes? How much carbs & when?
    • Blood glucose level = 70
    • 15g initially
    • 15g for every hr of intense activity
  42. DM - Exercise produces what in a diabetic? How?
    • Lowers blood glucose
    • By accelerating movement of glucose out of blood & into peripheral tissues
  43. DM - Combination of insulin & exercise can result in what?
    Hypoglycemia
  44. DM - Best time to exercise
    • 1 hour after a meal (bc glucose will be INC so less chance of hypoglycemia)
    • INC complex carbs at least 24 hrs before & after exercise
  45. DM - Insulin injections - where? do not exercise injected part when? DEC insulin dose by how much before exercise?
    • Insulin lowers glucose quickly
    • Inject into Non-exercising limb or body part
    • At least 1 hour following injection – closer to 2-4 hrs
    • DEC insulin dose by 30-35% before exercise
  46. DM - NO exercise when? - 3
    • Blood glucose is 250 w/evidence of urinary ketones
    • Blood glucose is at or near 300 with/without urinary ketones
    • Do not exercise during peak insulin times - 2-4 hrs after injection
  47. DM - Hyper vs Hypo & exercise
    • Hyperglycemic - Exercise (lowers blood sugar)
    • Hypoglycemic - DO NOT exercise
  48. DM - Exercise complications - retinopathy - 2
    • Avoid activities that dramatically INC BP (>170 SBP)
    • Avoid pounding or jarring activities
  49. DM - Exercise complications - neuropathy - 1
    Limit WB exercises w/significant neuropathy - INC falls risk
  50. DM - Exercise complications - nephropathy - 1
    Limit exercise to low-mod intensities
  51. DM - athletes w/diabetes - what do carbs do? how to counteract affects of hypoglycemia from exercise (2)
    • Carbs INC glucose
    • INC carb intake before or after exercise
    • DEC insulin
  52. DM - hypoglycemia results from what?
    Too much insulin
  53. DM - Brittle aka Labile Diabetes
    • Type 1
    • Large swings in blood sugar
  54. DM – other conditions associated w/it - 1
    Adhesive capsulitis
  55. Lyme's disease - location of symptoms MSK?
    • Acute - 
    • Chronic - intermittent arthritis w/marked pain + swelling in LARGE jts
  56. Urinary tract infections - S/S - 4
    Major sign?
    • Lethragic
    • Nausea
    • Painful urination
    • Fever
  57. Renal Calculi - Kidney stones - S/S
Author
Tanuisha
ID
324285
Card Set
Other Systems_ALL
Description
Other Systems_ALL
Updated