Psy 108: ch 9

  1. Psycholinguistics

    • Interdisciplinary field that examines how ppl use lang to comm ideas
    • We use lang in thousands of diff settings
    • Lang provides excellent ex of interrelatedness of cog processes
    • Encompasses broad range of topics: sounds, several levels of meaning, grammar, social factors
    • Cognitively complex phenomenon; huge part of our social interactions
    • Bias: most research focuses on how ppl understand & use English
    • Chomsky: more to a sentences than meets the eye; innate lang skills; modular
    • Theories: cognitive-functional approach; started to look at semantics (how past knowledge informs our lang)
  2. Phoneme

    • Basic unit of spoken lang
    • [Sounds like a, k, & th, vowel, "eh," consonant]
    • English lang has abt 40
    • Infants: to acquire lang they must distinguish btwn these & be able to grp together sounds that are phonetically equivalent [recognize sounds b & pare diff]
    • Use them to construct morphemes
    • Other langs have phoneme sounds we don't
    • Rule & memory theory: we have generalized rules for how phonemes work but also have memories that help us remember rules for irreg/unique words/rules
  3. Morpheme

    • Basic unit of meaning
    • [Reactivated has 4: re-, active, -ate, -ed; each segment conveys meaning]
    • Many can stand on their own [giraffe]; but others must be attached to other morphemes to convey their meaning [re- indicates repeated action]
    • Morphology: study of morphemes
    • Morpheme errors: 1 kind of slip of tongue error; when morphemes are exchanged in nearby words [self destruct instruction -> self instruct destruction]
    • Use phonemes to construct these
  4. Morphology

    • The study of morphemes
    • Encompassed in grammar (+ syntax)
    • Children: initially use simple form of a word in every context but begin to add on morphemes -> more advanced understanding & sometimes create own reg forms [mouses, runned]
    • Children appreciate this at a young age--pay greater attention to phrases w/appropriate morphology
    • Overregularization in children: works according to the rule they've found
    • PDP: we're trying to incorporate all these rules at same time
  5. Syntax

    • Grammatical rules that govern how we org words into sentences
    • Where do the subjs & verbs go? depends on lang you speak
    • Encompassed in grammar (+ morphology)
    • Writing uses more complex syntax than speaking
    • Children: 18-24 mo begin to combine 2 words; initially slow rate but incr rapidly after age 2; growing capacity of working memory aids to rapid incr in word combos; 2 word utterances can express many diff kinds of rel's & diff meaning in diff context; -> improve ordering, endings & start putting things together; constructive not totally imitative
  6. Grammar

    • Encompasses both morphology & syntax
    • Examines both word & sentence structure
    • L hemisphere
    • Concerned w/proper word choice--what words are appropriate for the sentence? ["I eated the cookie"]
  7. Semantics

    • Area of psycholinguistics that examines meanings of words & sentences
    • Semantic memory
    • Psychologists discouraged w/Chomsky dvlpd theories emphasizing human mind & semantics
    • How our past knowledge informs our lang
  8. Pragmatics

    • Our knowledge of the social rules that underlie lang use
    • Takes into account the listener's perspective [how you'd explain syntax to a 12yr old vs. college student]
    • Important in lang production & can incluence comprehension
    • Focuses on how speakers successfully comm messages to their audience
    • 2 important topics: common ground & understanding of directives
    • Lexical entrainment: pragmatic skill
    • Bilinguals: more sensitive to some pragmatic aspects of lang
    • Children: must learn what should & shouldn't be said in certain situations; need to know to use diff lang styles when talking to diff ppl; must learn 2 speakers need to coordinate convo by taking turns & listening
  9. Phrase structure

    • We construct a sentence by using a hierarchical structure that's based on grammatical building blocks (constituents)
    • ["The young woman carried the heavy painting" can be divided into 2 broad constituents: the phrase that focuses on the noun "the young woman" & on the verb "carried the heavy painting"--can be further subdivided]
    • Looks like upside down tree
    • Helps us appreciate more complicated rel's among elements of a sentence
  10. Constituents
    Phrase structure of language

    • Grammatical building blocks
    • We often need the entire constituent to give us cues abt the meaning of the words [Painting can be either a verb/non--but from context in the constituent the heavy painting we know it's a noun]
    • Ppl maintain a complete constituent in working memory while they process its meaning
  11. Modular (language)
    Chomsky approach

    • Ppl have a set of specific linguistic abilities that don't follow the principles of other cog processes
    • Chomsky proposed lang is this
    • B/c of this young children learn complex linguistic structures yrs b4 they master other simpler tasks like mental arithmetic
    • Speacialized abilities--why lang comes early
    • Standard cog approach: argues against this saying lang is interconnected w/other cog processes like working memory; says we're skilled at lang b/c our powerful brains can master many cog tasks
  12. Surface structure

    • Structure of a sentence that's rep'd by the words actually spoken/written
    • VS. deep structure--errors when these get confused
    • 2 sentences may have very diff surface structures but similar deep structures ["Sara threw the ball" vs "the ball was thrown by Sara"]--identical core meanings
    • Ambiguous sentences
    • Active & passive forms of sentence may differ in surface structure, even tho they have similar deep structures
    • Decision making: ppl are distracted by diff's in surface structure of probs & fail to realize they share a deep structure similarity (framing effect)
  13. Deep structure

    • The underlying, more abstract meaning of a sentence; meaning it's trying to convey
    • VS surface structure--errors when these get confused
    • 2 sentences may have very diff surface structures but similar deep structures ["Sara threw the ball" vs "the ball was thrown by Sara"]--identical core meanings
    • Ambiguous sentences
    • Active & passive forms of sentence may differ in surface structure, even tho they have similar deep structuresDecision making: ppl are distracted by diff's in surface structure of probs & fail to realize they share a deep structure similarity (framing effect)
    • Framing effect: both options have identical deep structures [lives lost/saved] but outcomes described diff
    • Problem isomorphs: have same deep structure but superficially many not look same
  14. Ambiguous sentences
    Surface structure of language

    • 2 sentences may have identical surface structures but very diff deep structures
    • ["POP CAN DRIVE"--father driving/fundraiser?]
    • Context usu helps resolve these
    • Readers who have relatively large working memory can quickly process these
    • Adding "the" instead of "a" changes them--means we're relating to something specifically
  15. Cognitive-functional approach
    Psycholinguistic theory

    • Aka usage-based linguistics
    • The function of human lang in everyday life is to comm meaning to other indiv's
    • We have lang to foster our social interactions for sake of survival
    • Emphasizes our cog processes [attention & memory] are intertwined w/our lang comp & production--all rely on lang
    • Young children have extremely powerful cog skills & social learning skills
    • Adults use lang strategically
    • Can use lang creatively to comm a variety of meaning
  16. Nested structure
    Language comprehension

    • Ppl have difficulty understanding sentences if they contain these w/a descriptive clause in the middle of the sentence
    • A phrase that's embedded w/in another sentence
    • ["The plane leavees at 9:41" vs. “The plane that I want to take when I go to Denver after he returns from Washington leaves at 9:41 in the morning.”]
    • Experience memory overload when trying to read these--need to remember 1st part of sentence while you process nested structure then you can processes remainder of the sentence
    • Memory overload becomes excessive when sentence contains several
    • Hard to make sense of at 1st b/c we have all these little phrases in it & have to break it up
    • Why we have commas to separate it
  17. Neurolinguistics

    • The discipline that examines how the brain processes lang
    • Neurological basis of lang is impressively complex
    • Aphasia
    • Hemispheric specialization
    • Neuroimaging research: fMRI
  18. Aphasia

    • Difficulty comm'ing, caused by damage to speech areas of brain (usu stroke, tumor, serious infection)
    • Broca's & Wernicke's aphasia
    • Hesitant, effortful, simple grammar; wordy confused
    • Some overlap, consider damage
    • Includes difficulty producing/comprehending spoken/written lang
  19. Broca's area

    • Located toward front of brain
    • Damage here usu leads to speech that's hesitant, effortful, & grammatically simple
    • 1 of locations of brain that manages motor mvmt--to produce speech you must move you lips & tongue
    • Production of lang linked to this
    • VS. Wernicke's area
  20. Broca's aphasia

    • Primarily characterized by an expressive-lang deficit (trouble producing lang)
    • May also have trouble understanding lang
    • VS. Wernicke's aphasia
    • Prob w/actually finding the words & being able to speak them
    • Can comprehend just fine--know what you said but have difficulty saying things
  21. Wernicke's area

    • Located toward back of the brain--temporal area (near memory area)
    • Damage here usu produces serious difficulties in understanding speech & lang production that's too wordy & confused
    • VS. Broca's area
  22. Wernicke's aphasia

    • Such severe receptive-lang probs they can't understand basic instructions like "point to the phone"
    • VS Broca's aphasia
    • Ppl think they're insane/mentall retarded
    • Try to comm in some way but can't answer
  23. Lateralization
    Hemispheric specialization

    • Each hemisphere of the brain has somewhat diff functions
    • Left: most of work in lang processing; esp skilled at speech perception (quickly selects most likely interpretation of a sound); determines cause & effect rel's; reading & understanding meaning & grammar; activated by high-imagery sentences
    • Right: does perform some tasks in lang processing; interprets emptional tone; appreciating humor; abstract lang tasks
    • L&R: often work together on tasks--interpreting subtle word meanings, resolving ambiguities, combining meaning of several sentences
    • When ppl have normal brain functions both hemispheres work together in complementary fashion
  24. fMRI

    • Based on principle that oxygen-rich blood is an index of brain activity
    • Used to investigate lang in humans
    • Superior to PET scan in detecting changes that occur very quickly & safer
    • Disadvantage: values can be inaccurate when ppl move heads slightly (more suitable for lang comp than production)
    • Found R hemisphere manages to respond diff to connected lang [using "the" instead of "a"] than disconnected
    • Highlights complexity of our lang skills
  25. Dual-route approach to reading

    • Skilled readers employ both a direct-access & indirect-access route
    • Debate whether readers actually "sound out" words while reading--sometimes they do sometimes they don't
    • Word sounds may be esp important when kids begin to read
    • Adults read tongue twisters very slowly (shows they're translating printed words into sounds)
    • Advantage: flexibility--argues characteristics of reading material (& the reader) determine whether access is direct/indirect
    • Consistent w/brain-imaging research
  26. Direct-access route
    Dual-route approach to reading

    • Recognize this word directly thru vision
    • Esp likely to use if word has an irregular spelling & can't be "sounded out"
    • [One, through]
    • Ppl can recognize a word visually w/o paying attention to sound of word
    • Usu use for a common word
    • Experienced/good readers likely to recognize words directly from print
    • [Horse-worse; quart-part]
    • No phonological confusion--don't need to sound them out
    • Seeing the word automatically evokes the memory & don't need to sound it out
  27. Indirect-access route
    Dual-route approach to reading

    • Recognize the word indirectly by sounding out the word
    • As soon as you see a word you translate the ink marks on the page into some form of sound b4 you can access a word & its meaning
    • Esp likely to use it if word has reg spelling & can be sounded out [ten, cabinet]
    • Must go thru intermediate step of converting visual stimulus into a phonolgoical stimulus
    • Sound coding may assist working memory, providing additional advantage during reading
    • Use 1st time you see a long uncommon word; beginning readers sound out words
    • Engage your mind more when you come across new word
    • [Lion-bare confused w/lion-bear]
  28. Whole-word approach
    Reading & Children

    • Aruges readers can directly connect the written word (as an entire unit) w/the meaning this word reps
    • In line w/direct-access approach
    • Emphasizes correspondence btwn written & spoken codes in English is notoriously complex
    • Argues kids shouldn't learn to emphasize way a word sounds but to identify a word in terms of its context w/in a sentence
    • VS phonics approach
    • Compromise: kids should be taught to use phonics to access the pronunciation of a word but should also use context as backup to conirm initial hypothesis
    • Can't force kids to use grammar any sooner even tho they can say the words
    • Some become very poor spellers from this approach
  29. Phonics approach
    Reading & Children

    • Readers recognize words by trying to pronounce the indiv letters in the word
    • In line w/indirect access approach--"sound it out"
    • Argues speech sound = necessary intermediate step in reading
    • Emphasizes dvlping young kids' awareness of phonemes
    • Phonics training helps kids who have reading probs
    • VS whole word approach
    • Compromise: kids should be taught to use phonics to access the pronunciation of a word but should also use context as backup to conirm initial hypothesis
    • Diff ways you can pronounce a diff morpheme
  30. Whole-language approach
    REading & Children

    • Reading instruction should emphasize meaning & should be enjoyable to incr children's enthusiasm abt learning to read
    • Should read interesting stories & experiment w/writing b4 they're expert spellers & use reading throughout their classroom experience
  31. Discourse

    • Language units that are larger than a sentence
    • Readers create casual inferences to integrate discourse & construct a well-org'd story
    • Form & integrate a rep
    • Narrative
  32. Constructionist view of inferences

    • Readers usu draw inferences abt the causes of events & rel's btwn events
    • Construct inferences abt a character's motivations, personality, motives
    • Readers actively construct explanations as they integrate the current info w/all the relevant info from previous parts of text as well as their background knowledge
    • Aruges ppl typically draw inferences, even when related topics are separated by several irrelevant paragraphs
    • Try to connect material w/in a text passage & consult info stored in LTM
    • Readers create casual inferences to integrate discourse & construct a well-org'd story
    • Try to retain consistency even when there's intervening material/contradicting evidence
  33. Metacognition
    • Your knowledge & control of your cog processes
    • 1 important function: supervises way you select & use your memory strategies
    • Extremely active process
    • Helpful at every stage of writing
    • Thoughts abt thinking
    • Awareness of your own knowledge
    • Metamemory
    • Poor in children
  34. Artificial intelligence

    • Area of computer science that attempts to constrcut computers that can demonstrate human-like cog processes
    • Goal: dvlp computer programs that will perform tasks that appear to be intelligent [lang comp, convos]
    • Natural lang
    • FRUMP, LSA
  35. Natural language
    Artificial intelligence

    • Ordinary human lang w/all its sloppiness, ambiguities, & complexities
    • Comptuers start w/no knowledge of this--researchers have to write into the program all the info necessary to make it beh as if it understands sentences typed on its keyboard & must be in form of detailed instructions
  36. FRUMP
    Artificial intelligence

    • Fast Reading Understanding & Memory Program
    • Goal: summarize newspaper stories written in ordinary lang
    • Usu worked in top-down fashion by applying world knowledge based on 48 diff scripts
    • Research on these kinds of programs show humans draw numerous inferences AI systems can't access
  37. Latent semantic analysis (LSA)
    Artificial Intelligence

    • 1 of most useful AI programs
    • Can perform many failry sophisticated lang tasks
    • Can be programmed to provide tutoring sessions in disciplines like physics
    • Can assess amt semantic similarity btwn 2 discourse segments
    • Can be used to grade essays--but can't assess student's creativity
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Psy 108: ch 9