micro chapter 16

  1. Innate immunity is
    A) The body's ability to ward off diseases.
    B) The body's defenses against any kind of pathogen.
    C) The body's defense against a particular pathogen.
    D) The lack of resistance.
    E) Increased susceptibility to disease.
    Answer: B
  2. Which of the following is NOT  a physical factor protecting the skin and mucous membranes from infection?
    A) Layers of cells
    B) Tears
    C) Saliva
    D) Lysozyme
    E) Ciliary escalator
    Answer: D
  3. The function of the "ciliary escalator" is to
    A) Kill microorganisms.
    B) Remove microorganisms from body cavities.
    C) Remove microorganisms from the lower respiratory tract.
    D) Remove microorganisms from the upper respiratory tract.
    E) All of the above.
    Answer: C
  4. Which of the following exhibits the highest phagocytic activity?
    A) Neutrophils
    B) Erythrocytes
    C) Lymphocytes
    D) Basophils
    E) Eosinophils
    Answer: A
  5. TLRs attach to all of the following EXCEPT
     A) AMPs.
    B) Flagellin.
    C) LPS.
    D) PAMPs.
    E) Peptidoglycan.
    Answer: A
  6. Which of the following CANNOT  be determined from a differential count?
    A) The number of white blood cells
    B) The numbers of each type of white blood cell
    C) The number of red blood cells
    D) The possibility of a state of disease
    E) None of the above
    Answer: C
  7. The complement protein cascade is the same for the classical pathway, alternative pathway, and lectin pathway
    beginning with the activation of
    A) C1.
    B) C2.
    C) C3.
    D) C5.
    E) C6.
    Answer: C
  8. Which of the following does NOT  increase blood vessel permeability?
    A) Kinins
    B) Prostaglandins
    C) Lysozymes
    D) Histamine
    E) Leukotrienes
    Answer: C
  9. Which of the following choices shows the order in which white blood cells migrate to infected tissues?
    A) Macrophages 􀁎  monocytes
    B) Lymphocytes 􀁎  macrophages
    C) Neutrophils 􀁎  macrophages
    D) Neutrophils 􀁎  monocytes
    E) Macrophages 􀁎  neutrophils
    Answer: D
  10. Margination refers to
    A) The adherence of phagocytes to microorganisms.
    B) The chemotactic response of phagocytes.
    C) Adherence of phagocytes to the lining of blood vessels.
    D) Dilation of blood vessels.
    E) The movement of phagocytes through walls of blood vessels.
    Answer: C
  11. Which of the following statements is true?
    A) Alpha interferon is an antiviral protein.
    B) Alpha interferon promotes phagocytosis.
    C) Gamma interferon causes bactericidal activity by macrophages.
    D) Alpha interferon acts against specific viruses.
    E) Beta interferon attacks invading viruses.
    Answer: C
  12. Which of the following is found normally in serum?
    A) Complement
    B) Interferon
    C) Histamine
    D) Leukocytosis- promoting factor
    E) TLRs
    Answer: A
  13. Which of the following is NOT  an effect of complement activation?
    A) Interference with viral replication
    B) Bacterial cell lysis
    C) Opsonization
    D) Increased phagocytic activity
    E) Increased blood vessel permeability
    Answer: A
  14. Which of the following is an effect of opsonization?
    A) Increased adherence of phagocytes to microorganisms
    B) Increased margination of phagocytes
    C) Increased diapedesis of phagocytes
    D) Inflammation
    E) Cytolysis
    Answer: A
  15. Which of the following is NOT  a way in which normal microbiota provide protection from infection?
    A) They provide antibacterial chemicals.
    B) They outcompete newcomers.
    C) They make the chemical environment unsuitable for nonresident bacteria.
    D) They produce lysozyme.
    E) They change the pH of the environment.
    Answer: D
  16. Which of the following does NOT  provide protection from phagocytic digestion?
    A) Preventing formation of phagolysosomes
    B) Killing white blood cells
    C) Causing formation of phagolysosomes
    D) Ability to grow at a low pH
    E) Biofilms
    Answer: C
  17. Defensive cells such as T cells identify pathogens by binding which of the following?
    A) Toll- like receptors
    B) Lysozyme
    C) Complement
    D) Lectins
    E) Cytokines
    Answer: A
  18. The swelling associated with inflammation decreases when the fluid
    A) Returns to the blood.
    B) Goes into lymph capillaries.
    C) Is excreted in urine.
    D) Is lost as perspiration.
    E) None of the above
    Answer: B
  19. Which of the following statements about fixed macrophages is false?
    A) They are found in certain tissues and organs.
    B) They develop from neutrophils.
    C) They are cells of the mononuclear phagocytic system.
    D) They are mature monocytes.
    E) All of the above statements are true.
    Answer: B
  20. Which of the following is NOT  used by phagocytes to adhere to a microorganism?
    A) Trapping a bacterium against a rough surface
    B) Opsonization
    C) Chemotaxis
    D) Lysozyme
    E) Complement
    Answer: D
  21. Which of the following is NOT  an effect of histamine?
    A) Vasodilation
    B) Fever
    C) Swelling
    D) Redness
    E) Pain
    Answer: B
  22. Which of the following is NOT  a function of inflammation?
    A) To destroy an injurious agent
    B) To remove an injurious agent
    C) To wall off an injurious agent
    D) To repair damaged tissue
    E) To produce antibodies
    Answer: E
  23. Chill is a sign that
    A) Body temperature is falling.
    B) Body temperature is rising.
    C) Body temperature will remain the same.
    D) Sweating will follow.
    E) None of the above.
    Answer: B
  24. Which of the following statements is true?
    A) There are at least 30 complement proteins.
    B) All of the complement proteins are always active in serum.
    C) Factors B, D, and P cause cytolysis.
    D) Complement activity is antigen specific.
    E) Complement increases after immunization.
    Answer: A
  25. Which of the following is NOT  a result of complement fixation?
    A) Activation of C3b
    B) Immune adherence
    C) Acute local inflammation
    D) Opsonization
    E) Cell lysis
    Answer: C
  26. Which of the following is NOT  part of the mechanism of action of alpha and beta interferons?
    A) They bind to the surface of uninfected cells.
    B) They inactivate viruses.
    C) They initiate manufacture of antiviral proteins.
    D) They work in cells not producing INF.
    E) They initiate transcription.
    Answer: B
  27. The alternative pathway for complement activation is initiated by
    A) Polysaccharides and C3b.
    B) C5􀁎 C9.
    C) Antigen􀁎 antibody reactions.
    D) Factors released from phagocytes.
    E) Factors released from damaged tissues.
    Answer: A
  28. The classical pathway for complement activation is initiated by
    A) Polysaccharides and C3b.
    B) C5􀁎 C9.
    C) Antigen􀁎 antibody reactions.
    D) Factors released from phagocytes.
    E) Factors released from damaged tissues.
    Answer: C
  29. Activation of C3a results in
    A) Acute inflammation.
    B) Increased blood vessel permeability.
    C) Fever.
    D) Attraction of phagocytes.
    E) Cell lysis.
    Answer: C
  30. Neutrophils with defective lysosomes are unable to
    A) Move by chemotaxis.
    B) Migrate.
    C) Produce toxic oxygen products.
    D) Live.
    E) None of the above.
    Answer: C
  31. Image Upload 1

     In Figure 16.1, what happens next?
    A) C2 causes bacterial lyses.
    B) C2a and C4b activate C3.
    C) C1 binds C2.
    D) C4 activates phagocytes.
    E) C5a activates C6.
    Answer: B
  32. After ingesting a pathogen, lysosomal enzymes produce all of the following EXCEPT
     A) Complement.
    B) O2- .
    C) H2 O2 .
    D) OH· .
    E) HOCl.
    Answer: A
  33. Activation of C5􀁎 C9 results in
    A) Activation of C3.
    B) Fixation of complement.
    C) Leakage of cell contents.
    D) Phagocytosis.
    E) Inflammation.
    Answer: C
  34. A C- reactive protein (CRP) test was ordered for a patient who recently underwent surgery. The results
    revealed CRP levels 10 times greater than normal. This indicates
    A) Inflammation.
    B) A normal response to the trauma of surgery.
    C) Abnormally high blood protein.
    D) Internal bleeding.
    E) None of the above.
    Answer: A
  35. Which of the following is involved in resistance to parasitic helminths?
    A) Basophil
    B) Eosinophil
    C) Lymphocyte
    D) Monocyte
    E) Neutrophil
    Answer: B
  36. Macrophages arise from which of the following?
    A) Basophil
    B) Eosinophil
    C) Lymphocyte
    D) Monocyte
    E) Neutrophil
    Answer: D
  37. Which one of the following does NOT  belong with the others?
    A) Basophil
    B) Eosinophil
    C) Dendritic cell
    D) Natural killer cell
    E) Neutrophil
    Answer: D
  38. Bacteria have siderophores that capture iron; humans counter this by
    A) Producing iron.
    B) Transferrins.
    C) Toxin production.
    D) Iron- degrading enzymes.
    E) Interferon.
    Answer: B
  39. All of the following occur during inflammation. What is the first step?
    A) Diapedesis
    B) Margination
    C) Phagocyte migration
    D) Repair
    E) Vasodilation
    Answer: E
  40. The lectin pathway for complement action is initiated by
    A) Mannose on host membranes.
    B) Mannose on the parasite.
    C) Lectins of the parasite.
    D) Gram- negative cell walls.
    E) Gram- positive cell walls.
    Answer: B
  41. Which one of the following is NOT  an effect of fever?
    A) Increases production of T cells.
    B) Increases alpha interferon activity.
    C) Increases transferrin production.
    D) Kills pathogens.
    E) Increases interleukin- 1.
    Answer: D
  42. Several inherited deficiencies in the complement system occur in humans. Which of the following would be the
    most severe?
    A) Deficiency of C3
    B) Deficiency of C5
    C) Deficiency of C6
    D) Deficiency of C7
    E) Deficiency of C8
    Answer: A
  43. Which of the following statements about the classical pathway of complement activation is false?
    A) C1 is the first protein activated in the classical pathway.
    B) The C1 protein complex is initiated by antigen􀁎 antibody complexes.
    C) C3 is not involved in the classical pathway.
    D) Cleaved fragments of some of the proteins act to increase inflammation.
    E) C3b causes opsonization.
    Answer: C
  44. Bacterial enzymes such as catalase and superoxide dismutase can protect bacteria from
    A) Complement.
    B) Histamine.
    C) Gamma interferon.
    D) Phagocytic digestion.
    E) Phagocytosis.
    Answer: D
  45. Serum is obtained from blood by
    A) Centrifuging whole blood.
    B) Coagulating whole blood.
    C) Lysing red blood cells.
    D) Lysing white blood cells.
    E) All of the above.
    Answer: B
Author
becca.fowler
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324084
Card Set
micro chapter 16
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micro chapter 16
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