3. Biogeography: Earth's Energy Budget

  1. Earth's energy budget
    Balance between shortwave radiation from Sun and infared(longwave) radiation transferred back into space
  2. Solar Radiation Budget (%s)
    • 100% incoming
    • 29% reflected by clouds, surface, etc. (Planetary Albedo)
    • 23% absorbed by water vapor, dust, ozone
    • 48% absorbed at earth's surface
  3. Longwave Radiation Budget
    • 48% absorbed
    • 5% lost to convection to space
    • Evaporation 25%
    • Longwave Radiation 18%
  4. Convection:
    combined process of conduction and advection
  5. Sensible Heat Flux
    when earth's surface heats the adjacent atmosphere
  6. latent heat flux
    energy stored in water vapor caused from evaporation
  7. The Greenhouse Effect
    • energy absorbed by greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere
    • energy re-emitted as longwave radiation, heating lower atmosphere and earth's surface
    • Earth's energy budget stays balanced, but increases mean global temp from 0°F to 57°F
  8. Greenhouse effect factors:
    • Water vapor has short atmospheric lifetime and concentration is stable
    • Carbon dioxide and methane have lower concentrations but lifetime is long; their concentration is rising
  9. The "Keeling Curve"
    • Shows Carbon dioxide concentration since 1960
    • Sept 17, 2016 Reading: 401.81 ppm
  10. Incoming shortwave radiation is dealt with by:
    • Albedo
    • Absorbtion
    • Transmission
  11. Outgoing longwave radiation is dealt with by:
    • convection
    • evaporation
    • re-radiation
    • greenhouse effect
  12. How air would move if the Earth didn't rotate
    • Rises at equator and moves north/south
    • Air cools and descends to surface, moves towards equator
  13. Latitudinal energy gradient:
    Earth's Heat Engine
  14. Convection
    hotter air rises, lower air sinks
  15. Law of Mass Continentality:
    states empty spaces are not tolerated in fluids
  16. Depression
    low-pressure area in relation to surrounding areas
  17. Anticyclone
    high pressure area at surface that is greater than its surrounding environment
  18. The Coriolis effect
    the deflection of objects moving in a straight path relative to the Earth's surface
  19. Earth's rotational direction?
    • West to East
    • (counter clockwise when looking at N pole)
  20. Circulation Graph:
    name 4 lat pressure zones
    name 3 vert cells of at circulation
    name 3 sets of predominate winds
    use arrows
    Image Upload 1
Card Set
3. Biogeography: Earth's Energy Budget