Psych 201 Unit 2

  1. Skeletal age
    A measure of bone development
  2. Cephalocaudal trend
    From the Latin for "head to tail". During the prenatal period, the head develops more rapidly than the lower part of the body
  3. Proximodistal trend
    Growth proceeds literally, from "near to far"--from the center of the body outward
  4. What psychical structure at birth is closest to its adult size?
    The brain
  5. How many neurons does the human brain have?
    100-200 billion
  6. Neuron
    Nerve cells that store and transmit information
  7. Synapses
    Between the neurons are tiny gaps where fibers from different neurons come close together but do not touch
  8. Neurotransmitters
    Neurons send messages to one another across the synapses through this chemical
  9. Programmed cell death
    Makes space for connective structures: As synapses form, many surrounding neurons die, 20-80 percent depending on the brain region
  10. As neurons form connections, what is vital for their survival?
  11. Synaptic pruning
    Neurons that are seldom stimulated soon loose their synapses in this process that returns neurons not needed at the moment to an uncommitted state so they can support future development
  12. How many synapses are pruned during childhood and adolescence to reach the adult level?
    About 40 percent
  13. Glial cells
    Half of the brain's volume is made up of these cells, which are responsible for myelination
  14. Myelination
    The coating of neural fibers with an insulting fatty sheath that improves the efficiency of message transfer
  15. Electroencephalogram (EEG)
    Researches examine brain-wave patterns for stability and organization--signs of mature functioning of the cortex
  16. Event-related potentials (ERP)
    Detect the general location of brain-wave activity
  17. Neuroimaging techniques
    Yield detailed, three-dimensional computerized pictures of the entire brain and its active areas. Provides the most precise information about which brain regions are specialized for certain capacities and about abnormalities in brain functioning
  18. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
    When an individual is exposed to a stimulus, fMRI detects changes in blood flow and oxygen metabolism throughout the brain magnetically, yielding a colorful, moving picture of parts of the brain used to perform a given activity
  19. Positron emission tomography (PET)
    Requires injection of a radioactive substance
  20. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)
    Works well in early childhood and infancy. Infrared (invisible) light is beamed at regions of the cerebral cortex to measure blood flow and oxygen metabolism while the child attends to a stimulus
  21. Cerebral cortex
    Surrounds the rest of the brain, resembling half of a shelled walnut. It is the largest brain structure, accounting for 85 percent of the brain's weight and containing the greatest number of neurons and synapses
  22. What part of the brain is sensitive to environmental influences for a much longer period?
    Cerebral cortex
  23. Frontal lobes
    The cortical regions with the most extended period of development
  24. Prefrontal cortex
    Lying in front of areas controlling body movement, is responsible for though--in particular, consciousness, inhibition of impulses, integration of information, and use of memory, reasoning, planning, and problem-solving strategies
  25. Hemispheres
    Sides of the brain that differ in functions
  26. What is the left hemisphere largely responsible for?
    Verbal abilities (such as spoken and written language) and positive emotion (such as joy)
  27. What is the right hemisphere largely responsible for?
    Spatial abilities (judging distances, reading maps, and recognizing geometric shapes) and negative emotion (such as distress)
  28. Lateralization
    Specialization of the two hemispheres
  29. Brain plasticity
    A highly plastic cerebral cortex, in which many areas are not yet committed to specific functions, has a high capacity for learning. And if a part of the cortex is damaged, other parts can take over tasks it would have handled
  30. What promotes lateralization?
    Process of acquiring language and other skills
  31. What does the extent of plasticity depend on?
    Age at time of injury, site of damage, and skill
  32. What is the goal of brain growth?
    To form neural connections that ensure mastery of essential skills
  33. Cortisol
    Stress hormone
  34. Experience-expectant brain growth
    Refers to the young brain's rapidly developing organization, which depends on ordinary experiences--opportunities to explore the environment, interact with people, and hear language and other sounds
  35. Experience-dependent brain growth
    Occurs throughout our lives. It consists of additional growth and refinement of established brain structures as a result of specific learning experiences that vary widely across individuals and cultures
  36. Melatonin
    A hormone within the brain that promotes drowsiness
  37. Catch-up growth
    A return to a genetically influenced growth path once conditions improve
  38. Marasmus
    Wasted condition of the body caused by a diet low in all essential nutrients. It usually appears in the first year of life when a baby's mother is too malnourished to produce enough breast milk and bottle-feeding is inadequate
  39. Kwashiorkor
    Caused by an unbalanced diet very low in protein. The disease usually strikes after weaning, between 1 and 3 years of age
  40. Food insecurity
    Uncertain access to enough food for a healthy, active life
  41. Learning
    Changes in behavior as the result of experience
  42. Classical conditioning
    In this form of learning, a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that leads to a reflexive response. Once the baby's nervous system makes the connection between the two stimuli, the neutral stimulus produces the behavior by itself
  43. Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
    Before learning takes place
  44. Unconditioned response (UCR)
  45. Neutral stimulus
    Does not to the reflex is presented just before, or at about the same time as the unconditioned stimulus
  46. Conditioned stimulus (CS)
    If learning has occurred, the neutral stimulus by itself produces a response similar to the reflexive response. The neutral stimulus is then called a conditioned stimulus
  47. Conditioned response (CR)
    The response the conditioned stimulus elicits
  48. Extinction
    When the conditioned stimulus is presented along enough times without the unconditioned stimulus, the conditioned stimulus will no longer occur
  49. Operant conditioning
    Infants act, or operate, on the environment, and stimuli that follow their behavior changes the probability that the behavior will occur again
  50. Reinforcer
    A stimulus that increases the occurrence of a response
  51. Punishment
    Removing a desirable stimulus or presenting an unpleasant one to decrease the occurrence of a response
  52. Habituation
    Refers to a gradual reduction in the strength of a response due to repetitive stimulation
  53. Recovery
    A new stimulus--a change in the environment--causes responsiveness to return to a high level
  54. Remote memory
    Memory for stimuli to which infants were exposed weeks or months earlier
  55. Imatation
    Copying the behavior of another person
  56. Mirror neurons
    Specialized cells in motor areas of the cerebral cortex in primates that underlie these capacities. Mirror neurons fire identically when a primate hears or sees an action and when it carries out that action on its own
  57. Gross-motor development
    Refers to control over actions that help infants get around in the environment, such as crawling, standing, and walking
  58. Fine-motor development
    Has to do with smaller movements, such as reaching and grasping
  59. Dynamic systems theory of motor development
    Mastery of motor skills involves acquiring increasingly complex systems of action. When motor skills work as a system, separate abilities blend together, each cooperating with others to produce more effective ways of exploring and controlling the environment
  60. Softly assembled
    Allowing for different paths to the same motor skill
  61. Prereaching
    Newborns make poorly coordinated swipes or swings toward an object in front of them, but because of poor arm and hand control they rarely contact the object
  62. Ulnar grasp
    The newborn's grasp reflex is replaced by this. It's a clumsy motion in which the fingers close against the palm
  63. Pincer grasp
    By the end of the first year, infants use the thumb and index finger opposably in a well-coordinated pincer grasp
  64. Sensation
    What the baby's receptors detect when exposed to stimulation
  65. Perception
    We organize and interrupt what we see
  66. Perceptual narrowing effect
    Perceptual sensitivity that becomes increasingly attuned with age to information most often encountered
  67. Statistical learning capacity
    By analyzing the speech stream for patterns--repeatedly occurring sequences of sounds--they acquire a stock of speech structures for which they will later learn meanings, long before they start to talk around age 12 months
  68. When can babies focus on objects as well as adults?
    2 months
  69. When are babies color vision as good as adults?
    4 months
  70. Visual acuity
    Fineness of discrimination
  71. Depth perception
    The ability to judge the distance of objects from one another and from ourselves
  72. What is the first depth cue to which infants are sensitive?
  73. Binocular depth cues
    Arise because our two eyes have slightly different views of the visual field
  74. Pictorial depth cues
    The ones artists often use to make a painting look three-dimensional
  75. What aspect of motor progress plays a vital role in refinement in depth perception?
    Independent movement
  76. Contrast sensitivity
    Explains early pattern preferences. Contrast refers to the difference in the amount of light between adjacent regions in a patter. If babies are sensitive to the contrast in two or more patterns, they prefer the one with more contrast
  77. Intermodal perception
    We make sense of these running streams of light, sound, tactile, odor, and taste information, perceiving them as integrated wholes. We know, for example, that an object's shape is the same whether we see it or touch it, that lip movements are closely coordinated with the sound of a voice, and that dropping a rigid object on a hard surface will cause a sharp, banging sound
  78. Amodal sensory properties
    Information that overlaps two or more sensory systems, such as rate, rhythm, duration, intensity, temporal synchrony (for vision and hearing), and texture and shape (for vision and touch)
  79. What is crucial for perceptional development?
    Intermodal sensitivity
  80. Differentiation theory
    Infants actively search for invariant features of the environment--those that remain stable--in a constantly changing perceptual world
  81. Sensorimotor stage
    spans the first two years of life. Piaget believed that infants and toddlers "think" with their eyes, ears, hands, and other sensorimotor equipment. They cannot yet carry out many activities inside their heads
  82. Schemes
    Specific psychological structures--organized ways of making sense of experience
  83. Adaptation
    Involves building schemes through direct interaction with the environment
  84. Assimilation
    During assimilation, we use our current schemes to interpret the external world
  85. Accommodation
    In accommodation, we create new schemes or adjust old ones after noticing that our current ways of thinking do not capture the environment completely
  86. Equilibrium
    When children are not changing much, they assimilate more than they accommodate
  87. Disequilibrium
    During rapid cognitive change children are in a state of cognitive discomfort
  88. Organization
    A process that takes place internally, apart from direct contact with the environment. Once children form new schemes, they rearrange them, linking them with other schemes to create a strongly interconnected cognitive system
  89. Circular reaction
    Provides a special means of adapting their first schemes. It involves stumbling onto a new experience causesd by the baby's own motor activity. The reaction is "circular" because, as the infant tries to repeat the event again and again, a sensorimotor response that first occurred by change strengthens into a new scheme
  90. Piaget's Sensorimotor Stages
    • 1. Reflexive schemes- newborn reflexes
    • 2. Primary circular reactions- simple motor habits centered around the infant's own body
    • 3. Secondary circular reactions- actions aimed at repeating interesting effects in the surrounding world
    • 4. Coordination of secondary circular reactions- Intentional, or goal directed, behavior
    • 5. Tertiary circular reaction- Exploration of the properties of objects by acting on them in novel ways
    • 6. Mental representation- Internal depictions of objects and events, as indicated by sudden solutions to problems
  91. What did Piaget see the building blocks of sensorimotor intelligence was?
    Newborn reflexes
  92. Intentional or goal-directed behavior
    Coordinating schemes deliberately to solve simple problems
  93. What is the foundation of all problem solving?
    Means-end reaction sequences
  94. Object permanence
    The understanding that objects continue to exist when out of sight
  95. Mental representations
    Internal depictions of information that the mind can manipulate
  96. Images
    Mental pictures of objects, people, and spaces
  97. Concepts
    Categories in which similar objects or events are grouped together
  98. Invisible displacement
    finding a toy moved while out of sight
  99. Deferred imitation
    The ability to remember and copy the behavior of model who are not present
  100. Make-believe play
    Children act out everyday and imaginary activities
  101. Violation-of-expectation method
    They may habituate babies to a physical event (expose them to the event until their looking declines) to familiarize them with a situation in which their knowledge will be tested. Or they may simply show babies an expected event (one that follows physical laws) and an unexpected event (a variation of the first event that violates physical laws). Heightened attention to the unexpected event suggests that the infant is "surprised" by a deviation from physical reality and, therefore, is aware of that aspect of the physical world
  102. A-not-B search error
    Children look at where they last saw the object, and not where it currently is
  103. How is the mastery of object permanence achieved?
  104. Solve problems by analogy
    Apply a solution strategy from one problem to other relevant problems
  105. Displaced reference
    The realization that words can be used to cue mental images of things not physically present--a symbolic capacity
  106. What do findings show about cognitive attainments?
    They do not develop together in a neat, stepwise fashioned like Piaget assumed
  107. Video deficit effect
    Poorer performance after a video than a live demonstration
  108. Core knowledge perspective
    Babies are born with a set of innate knowledge systems, or core domains of thought. Each of these prewired understandings permits a ready grasp of new, related information and therefore supports early, rapid development
  109. Sensory register
    First, information enters the sensory register, where sights and sounds are represented directly and stored briefly
  110. Short-term memory
    In the second part of the mind, we retain attended-to-information briefly so we can actively "work" on it to reach our goals
  111. Working memory
    The number of items that can be briefly held in mind while also engaging in some effort to monitor or manipulate those items
  112. Central executive
    To manage the cognitive system's activities, the central executive directs the flow of information, implementing the basic procedures just mentioned and also engaging in more sophisticated activities that enable complex, flexible thinking. For example, the central executive coordinates incoming information with information already in the system, and it selects, applies, and monitors strategies that facilitate memory storage, comprehension, reasoning, and problem solving
  113. Automatic processes
    Are so well-learned that they require no space in working memory and, therefore, permit us to focus on other information while performing them
  114. Long-term memory
    Our permanent knowledge base
  115. Retrieval
    Getting information back from the system
  116. Executive function
    The diverse cognitive operations and strategies that enables us to achieve our goals in cognitively challenging situations
  117. Infantile amnesia
    That most of us cannot retrieve events that happened to us before age 3
  118. Autobiographical memory
    We can recall many personally meaningful one-time events from both the recent and the distant past: the day a sibling was born or a move to a new house
  119. Explicit memory
    One in which children remember deliberately rather than implicitly, without conscious awareness
  120. Recognition
    Noticing when a stimulus is identical or similar to one previously experienced
  121. Recall
    Is more challenging because it involves remembering something not present
  122. Categorize
    Grouping similar objects and events into a single representation
  123. How does categorization help children learn and remember?
    Categorization reduces enormous amount of new information infants encounter every day, helping them learn and remember
  124. Dynamic systems view
    Researchers analyze each cognitive attainment to see how it results from a complex system of prior accomplishments and the child's current goals
  125. Zone of proximal (or potential) development
    Refers to a range of tasks too difficult for the child to do alone but possible with the help of more skilled partners
  126. Process of development
    How children's thinking changes
  127. Intelligence quotient (IQ)
    Indicates the extent to which the raw score (number of items passed) deviates from the typical performance of same-age individuals
  128. Standardization
    Giving the test to a large, representative sample and using the results as the standard for interpreting scores
  129. Normal distribution
    Most scores cluster around the mean, or average, with progressively fewer falling toward the extremes. This bell-shaped distribution results whenever researchers measure individual differences in large samples
  130. Developmental quotients (DQ's)
    Because most infant test scores do not tap the same dimensions of intelligence assessed in older children, they are conservatively labeled developmental quotients rather than IQs
  131. Screening
    Helping to identify for further observation and intervention babies who are likely to have developmental problems
  132. What are the best available infant predictors of IQ from early childhood through early adulthood?
    Speed of habituation and recovery to novel visual stimuli
  133. Home observation for measurement of the environment (HOME)
    A checklist for gathering information about the quality of children's home lives through observation and parental interview
  134. What repeatedly predicts better language and IQ scores in toddlerhood and early childhood?
    Involvement and encouragement of new skills
  135. Developmentally appropriate practice
    These standards, devised by the U.S. National Association for the Education of Young Children, specify program characteristics that serve young children's developmental and individual needs, based on both current research and consensus among experts
  136. Language acquisition device (LAD)
    An innate system that contains a universal grammar, or set of rules common to all languages. It enables children, no matter which language they hear, to understand and speak in a rule-oriented fashion as soon as they pick up enough words
  137. Cooing
    Around 2 months, vowel-like noises because of their pleasant "oo" quality
  138. Babbling
    Appears around 6 months in which infants repeat consonant-vowel combinations in long strings, such as "bababababa" or "nanananana"
  139. Joint attention
    In which the child attends to the same object or event as the caregiver
  140. Underextension
    When young children first learn words, they sometimes apply them too narrowly
  141. Overextension
    Applying a word to a wider collection of objects and events than is appropriate
  142. Language production
    The words children use
  143. Language comprehension
    The words they understand
  144. Spurt in vocabulary
    A transition from a slower to a faster learning phrase
  145. Telegraphic speech
    These two-word utterances, like a telegram, they focus on high-content words, omitting smaller, less important ones
  146. Referential style
    Their vocabularies consisted mainly of words that refer to objects
  147. Expressive style
    Compared with referential children, they produce many more social formulas and pronouns
  148. Infant-directed speech (IDS)
    A form of communication made up of short sentences with high-pitched, exaggerated expression, clear pronunciation, distinct pauses between speech segments, and repetition of new words in a variety of contexts
  149. Basic trust versus mistrust
    When the balance of care is sympathetic and loving, the psychological conflict of the first year is resolved on the positive side
  150. Autonomy verses shame and doubt
    Is resolved favorably when parents provide young children with suitable guidance and reasonable choices
  151. What happens when parents are over or under controlling?
    The child feels forced and shamed and doubts his own ability to control his impulses and act completely on his own
  152. Basic emotions
    Happiness, interest, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, and disgust are universal in humans and other primates and have a long evolutionary history of promoting survival
  153. Social smile
    Between 6 and 10 weeks the parent's communication evokes a broad grin
  154. Laughter
    Appears around 3 to 4 months and reflects faster processing of information than smiling
  155. Stranger anxiety
    The most frequent expression of fear is to unfamiliar adults
  156. Parental depression
    Can interfere with effective parenting and seriously impair children's development
  157. Secure base
    Babies use the familiar caregiver as a point from which to explore, venturing into the environment and then returning for emotional support
  158. Social referencing
    Beginning at 8 to 10 months infants engage in social referencing--actively seeking emotional information from a trusted person in an uncertain situation
  159. What does social referencing allow infants to do?
    To compare their own and others' assessments of events
  160. Self-conscious emotions
    Humans are capable of a second, higher-order set of feelings, including guilt, shame, embarrassment, envy, and pride. They each involve injury to or enhancement of our sense of self
  161. When do self-conscious emotions appear?
    18-24 months
  162. Emotional self-regulation
    Refers to the strategies we use to adjust our emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity so we can accomplish our goals
  163. Emotional contagion
    The phenomenon of having one person's emotions and related behaviors directly trigger similar emotions and behaviors in other people.
  164. Temperament
    Early-appearing, stable individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation. Reactivity refers to quickness and intensity of emotional arousal, attention, and motor activity. Self-regulation refers to strategies that modify that reactivity
  165. Thomas and Chess's model of temperament
    • Easy child- (40%) quickly establishes regular routines in infancy, is generally cheerful, and adapts easily to new experiences
    • Difficult child-(10%) irregular in daily routines, is slow to accept new experiences, and tends to react negatively and intensely
    • Slow-to-warm-up child-(15%) inactive, shows mild, low-key reactions to environmental stimuli, is negative in mood, and adjust slowly to new experiences
  166. Effortful control
    Self-regulatory dimension of temperament, effortful control--the capacity to voluntarily suppress a dominant response in order to plan and execute a more adaptive response
  167. Inhibited, or shy, children
    React negatively to and withdraw from novel stimuli
  168. Uninhibited, or sociable, children
    Display positive emotional to and approach novel stimuli
  169. What factors affect the extend to which a child's temperament remains stable?
    • -Development of the biological systems on which temperament is based
    • -The child's capacity for effortful control
    • -Success of her efforts, which depend on the quality and intensity of her emotional reactivity
  170. Amygdala
    Inner brain structure devoted to processing emotional information
  171. Who proposed a goodness-of-fit model?
    Thomas and Chess
  172. Goodness-of-fit model
    Describe how temperament and environment together can produce favorable outcomes. Goodness of fit involves creating child-rearing environments that recognize each child's temperament while encouraging more adaptive functioning
  173. What foster effortful control in toddlerhood and childhood?
    Parental sensitivity, support, clear expectations, and limits all reduce the likelihood that difficultness will persist
  174. Attachment
    The strong affectionate tie we have with special people in our lives that leads us to feel pleasure when we interact with them and to be comforted by their nearness in times of stress
  175. Ethological theory of attachment
    Recognizes the infant's emotional tie to the caregiver as an evolved response that promotes survival, is the most widely accepted view
  176. Sense of trust
    The expectation that the caregiver will respond when signaled
  177. Separation anxiety
    Becoming upset when their trusted caregiver leaves
  178. Four phases of attachment
    • 1. Preattachment phase (birth to 6 weeks)- built in signals like crying and smiling help bring newborn babies into close contact with other humans, who comfort them. Babies recognize their mother but aren't attached yet and can be left with others
    • 2. Attachment-in-the-making (6 weeks to 6-8 months) Infants respond differently to a familiar caregiver than a stranger
    • 3. Clear-cut (6-8 months to 18-24 months) Attachment to familiar caregiver is evident
    • 4. Formation of a reciprocal relationship (18 months to 24 months) Rapid growth in representation and language permits toddlers to understand some of the factors that influence the parent's coming and going and to predict her return
  179. Internal working model
    Set of expectations about the availability of attachment figures and their likelihood of providing support during times of stress. The internal working model becomes a vital part of personality, serving as a guide for all future close relationships
  180. Strange situation
    A widely used laboratory procedure for assessing the quality of attachment between 1 and 2 years of age. 

    In designing it, Mary Ainsworth and her colleagues reasoned that securely attached infants and toddlers should use the parent as a secure base from which to explore an unfamiliar playroom. In addition, when the parent leaves, an unfamiliar adult should be less comforting than the parent. The Strange Situation takes the baby through eight short episodes in which brief separations from and reunions with the parent occur
  181. Secure attachment
    These infants use the parent as a secure base. When separated, they may or may not cry, but if they do, it is because the parent is absent and they prefer her to the stranger. When the parent returns, they actively seek contact, and their crying is reduced. (60%)
  182. Avoidant attachment
    These infants seem unresponsive to the parent when she is present. When she leaves, they usually are not distressed, and they react to the stranger in much the same way as to the parent. During reunion, they avoid or are slow to greet the parent and when picked up, they often fail to cling (15%)
  183. Resistant attachment
    Before separation, these infants seek closeness to the parent and often fail to explore. When the parent leaves, they are usually distressed, and on her return they combine clinginess with angry, resistive behavior, sometimes hitting and pushing. Many continue to cry after being picked up and cannot be comforted easily (10%)
  184. Disorganized/disoriented attachment
    This pattern reflects the greatest insecurity. At reunion, these infants show confused, contradictory behaviors--for example, looking away while the parent is holding them or approaching the parent with flat, depressed emotion. Most display a dazed facial expression, and a few cry out unexpectedly after having calmed down or display odd, frozen postures (15%)
  185. Attachment Q-Sort
    • -An alternative to the strange situation and suitable for children between 1 and 4 years
    • -Depends on home observation
    • -Either the parent or a highly trained observer sorts 90 behaviors into nine categories ranging from "highly descriptive" to "not at all descriptive" of the child. 
    • -A score, ranging from high to low in security is computed
  186. What factors might influence attachment security?
    • -Early availability of a consistent caregiver 
    • -Quality of caregiving
    • -The baby's characteristics 
    • -Family contact including parents' internal working models
  187. Sensitive caregiving
    Responding promptly, consistently, and appropriately to infants and holding them tenderly and carefully
  188. Interactional synchrony
    Separates the experiences of secure from insecure babies. It is best described as a sensitively tuned "emotional dance," in which the caregiver responds to infant signals in a well-timed, rhythmic, appropriate fashion
  189. Self-recognition
    • -Around age 2
    • -Identification of the self as a physically unique being
  190. Scale errors
    Attempting to do things that their body size makes impossible
  191. Empathy
    The ability to understand another's emotional state and feel with that person, or respond emotionally in a similar way
  192. Categorical self
    Between 18 and 30 months, children develop a categorical self as they classify themselves and others on the basis of age, sex, physical characteristics, and even goodness versus badness and competencies
  193. Compliance
    They show clear awareness of caregivers' wishes and expectations and can obey simple requests and commands
  194. Delay of gratification
    Waiting for an appropriate time and place to engage in a tempting act
Card Set
Psych 201 Unit 2
Physical Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood,