Employment Discrimination

  1. What are the 2 defenses to defamation, other than qualified privilege?
    • 1. Truth
    • 2. Consent
  2. Even if the employer wins with such a defense, it still must pay the...., which is why most employers try to avoid litigation.
    cost of defending itself in court
  3. 4 smart practices for dealing with departing employees. 

    1. Before providing references, ask the employee to sign an....
    2. Negotiate with an employee who is leaving on an agreed letter of....
    3. Make certain that only authorized employees give....
    4. Make sure references are based on....
    • 1. authorization form
    • 2. reference
    • 3. references
    • 4. documentary evidence
  4. An employer giving a reference may give incomplete info or misrepresent the work of a former employee. If this happens, and then the employee harms others, the employer could be liable for....
    Negligent referral
  5. If an employer chooses to give a reference, it must not be....
  6. 2 requirements of the Immigration Reform and Control Act.
    • 1. Employers can't knowingly hire unauthorized “aliens”
    • 2. Employers w/4 or more employees can't discriminate based on national origin and citizenship.
  7. En employer must check eligibility of.... hires, not just people from other countries.
  8. The discrimination requirement of the Immigration Reform and Control Act applies only to.... citizens and.... immigrants.
    US, legal
  9. For all newly hired workers, within.... days, the employer must verify employment eligibility by completing federal...., which requires certain documents as proof of....
    I-9, eligibility
  10. Which 5 types of documents does the I-9 require?
    • 1. License
    • 2. Birth certificate
    • 3. Passport
    • 4. Resident alien registration card
    • 5. Unexpired employment authorization document
  11. A limitation or denial of employment opportunity based on protected class characteristics of a person (adverse employment actions)
    Employment discrimination
  12. Liability for employment discrimination arises not from prejudice alone, but from its effects on....
    employment opportunities.
  13. 6 practical tips to avoid discrimination and harassment claims.
    • 1. Leadership commitment
    • 2. Strong policies/procedures
    • 3. Clear reporting process
    • 4. Clear investigation process
    • 5. No retaliation
    • 6. Training
  14. 6 anti-discrimination statutes.
    • 1. Title VII
    • 2. Texas Commission on Human Rights Act
    • 3. Age Discrimination in Employment Act
    • 4. Americans w/Disabilities Act and the ADAAmendments Act
    • 5. Equal Pay Act 
    • 6. Pregnancy Discrimination Act
  15. What are the 7 protected classes?
    • 1. Race, Color, Sex, National Origin, Religion (Title VII)
    • 2. Citizenship (IRCA)
    • 3. Age (ADEA)
    • 4. Disability (ADA) 
    • 5. Pregnancy (PDA)
    • 6. Veterans, Military Service (USERRA)
    • 7. Genetic Information (GINA)
  16. Some protected classes are recognized under... law,but not.... law.
    state, federal
  17. 3 amendments to Title VII.
    • 1. Equal Opportunity Employment Act
    • 2. Pregnancy Discrimination Act
    • 3. Civil Rights Act of '91
  18. The Equal Opportunity Employment act expanded coverage to include.... employees and it established the....
    government,  Equal Opportunity Employment Commission (EEOC)
  19. The Pregnancy Discrimination Act specifically provides protection for.... workers.
  20. What 2 things did the Civil Rights act of '91 add to Title VII?
    • 1. Jury trials
    • 2. Compensatory/punitive damages
  21. Caps on compensatory/punitive damages for 

    1. 15-100 employees?
    2. 101-200 employees?
    3. 201-500 employees?
    4. Over 500 employees?
    • 1. $50,000
    • 2. $100,000
    • 3. $200,000
    • 4. $300,000
  22. An employer cannot discriminate on the basis of what 5 things under Title VII?
    • 1. Race
    • 2. Color
    • 3. Gender
    • 4. Religion
    • 5. National origin
  23. An employer cannot retaliate based upon an employee’s.... in protected activity or.... to discriminatory practices.
    participation, opposition
  24. Discrimination can be involved in.... (9 things)
    • 1. Hiring
    • 2. Firing
    • 3. Training
    • 4. Promotion
    • 5. Discipline
    • 6. Compensation
    • 7. Benefits
    • 8. Classification
    • 9. Terms of employment
  25. 3 groups that must comply with Title VII.

    1. Employers engaged in interstate commerce if they have.... or more employees for each working day in each of.... or more calendar weeks in the currentor preceding calendar year
    2. Labor organizations of any kind that exist to deal with employers concerning labor issues, engaged in an industry affecting...
    3. .... that, with or w/o compensation, procure employees for employers or opportunities to work for employees
    • 1. 15, 20
    • 2. commerce
    • 3. Employment agencies
  26. Who is covered under Title VII?

    1. .... and.... employees.
    2. U.S. citizens employed outside the U.S. working for.... employers and non-U.S. citizens working....
    • 1. Public, private
    • 2. American, within the U.S.
  27. Who is not covered under Title VII?

    1. Employees of employers having less than.... employees
    2. Employees whose employers are not engaged in....
    3. Employees of.... institutions
    • 1. 15
    • 2. interstate commerce
    • 3. religious
  28. Time limits for bring a claim w/in the EEOC include within.... days of the event for filing with EEOC, and within.... days of event for filing with state or local agency.
    180, 300
  29. In an EEOC claims case, after mediation when no agreement is reached, the agency makes determination of cause or no cause. If no cause,...., if cause,....
    • -employee is notified and given right-to-sue letter
    • -agency notifies employer of proposed remedy
  30. After receiving right-to-sue letter in EEOC case, the individual has.... days to file a lawsuit.
  31. Courts must give EEOC cases "de novo review" which means a....
    complete new look.
  32. For EEOC cases, many employers are now using mandatory.... agreements which are not subject to....
    arbitration, judicial review
  33. Jury trials are permitted at the request of either party when.... are sought.
    compensatory/punitive damages
  34. 4 theories used for Title VII and other discrimination lawsuits?
    • 1. Disparate Treatment
    • 2. Disparate Impact
    • 3. Retaliation
    • 4. Failure to Reasonably Accomodate
  35. -The Title VII theory that involves intentional, unequal treatment.
    -Treating similarly situated employees differently because of prohibited factor
    Disparate Treatment
  36. -The Title VII theory that involves a facially neutral policy that has discriminatory impact.
    -Result of workplace policy that appears neutral, but have an adverse impact on a protected group.
    Disparate Impact
  37. The Title VII theory that involves taking adverse employment action based on an employee’s exercise of his/her legal rights.
  38. The Title VII theory that applies to religion and disability.
    Failure to Reasonably Accommodate
  39. The defense for Disparate.... is Bona fide occupational qualification (intentional discriminationis reasonably necessary to employer’s business) and the defense for Disparate.... is business necessity.
    treatment, impact
  40. 4 parts of the Plaintiff's burden of proof in a disparate treatment (prima facie) case.
    • 1. Plaintiff is in a protected class
    • 2. Plaintiff applied and was qualified
    • 3. Plaintiff was denied job
    • 4. Employer considered other candidates
  41. 7 types of disparate treatment cases.
    • 1. Direct Evidence
    • 2. Facially Discriminatory Policy
    • 3. Reverse Discrimination
    • 4. Pretext
    • 5. Mixed Motive
    • 6. Pattern
    • 7. Harassment
  42. 2 parts of the Plaintiff's burden of proof in a disparate impact (prima facie) case.
    • 1. Plaintiff is in protected class and “neutral”employment policy has the effect of limiting employment opportunities
    • 2. The difference in outcomes across protected classes is large enough that it is unlikely to exist by chance
  43. In a disparate impact claim, the employer's burden of proof includesproving that the employment policy is “.... and consistent w/...."
    job related, business necessity
  44. In age discrimination cases, the employer must show some “reasonable factor other than...."
  45. 3 parts of the burden of proof in a retaliation case.
    • 1. Plaintiff engaged in protected activity
    • 2. Plaintiff was subjected to adverse action
    • 3. Link between engaging in protected activity and loss/limitation of employment opportunity
  46. Remedies under Title VII (9 of them)
    • 1. Back pay up to 2 years
    • 2. Front pay for earnings a claimant would've received if not for discrimination
    • 3. Reinstatement
    • 4. Seniority
    • 5. Retroactive Seniority
    • 6. Injunctive relief
    • 7. Compensatory damages
    • 8. Punitive damages
    • 9. Attorney fees
  47. 2 defenses under Title VII.
    • 1. Bona fide occupation qualification
    • 2. Practice is job-related and consistent w/business necessity
  48. States that "it is not unlawful for an employer to hire employees on the basis of religion, sex, or national origin in instances where these factors are a bona fide occupational qualification reasonable necessary to the normal operation of a particular enterprise.
    Bona Fide Occupation Qualification
  49. Affirmative action is required of (1) companies that have contracts to sell goods or services to the.... (many states also have affirmative actionrequirements for contractors) and of (2) an employer when a discrimination suit results in a.... or.... that includes affirmative action as a remedy
    fed. gov., settlement, court order
Card Set
Employment Discrimination