Chapter 7: Memory

  1. What is memory?
    -the nervous system’s capacity to acquire and retain information and skills.
  2. How is human memory both similar to and different from a computer?
    -organized like folders
  3. What are the three tasks of memory?
    • 1. Encoding
    • -brain changes info into neural code that can be use
    • 2. Storage
    • -maintaining information for some time
    • 3. Retrieval
    • -re-accessing the information for use
  4. What are the three sequential memory storage systems?
    • 1. Sensory storage
    • -unattended info is lost
    • -Duration: up to a few secs
    • -Capacity: Vast
    • 2. Short-term storage
    • -information that is not manipulated is lost
    • -Duration: about 20 secs
    • -Capacity: about 7 items
    • 3. Long-term storage
    • -some information may be forgotten
    • -Duration: unlimited
    • -Capacity: unlimited
  5. Describe the levels of processing theory
    • 1. Maintenance rehearsal
    • Using working memory processes to repeat information based on how it sounds (auditory information); provides only shallow encoding of information and less successful long-term storage.
    • 2. Elaborative rehearsal
    • Using working memory processes to think about how new information relates to ourselves or our prior knowledge (semantic information); provides deeper encoding of information for more successful long-term storage.
  6. Describe the case study of H.M. How was his memory affected by the experimental surgey? What did we learn about memory from this case?
    • -doctors removed parts of his temporal lobe to stop seizures
    • -he lost the ability to store most types of new information in long-term storage
    • -long term storage is actually made up of several memory systems
    • -brain damage can affect memories that we retrieve and describe
    • -brain damage may not affect memories that we display by our behavior
  7. Distinguish between anterograde and regrograde amnesia
    • 1. Anterograde¬†
    • -people lose the ability to form new memories
    • 2. Retrograde
    • -people lose memories of past events
  8. What are some reasons we forget?
  9. What is retroactive interference?
  10. What is proactive interference?
  11. What are retrieval cues?
    anything that helps us access memory
  12. Distingish between context- and state-dependent cues and provide an example of each
  13. What are primacy effects?
    better memory people have for items presented at the beginning of the list.n.
  14. Recency effects?
    refers to the better memory people have for the most recent items, the ones at the end of the list
  15. What is a mnemonic?
Card Set
Chapter 7: Memory
psychology 101