Chp 7/8a Overview of the cell/Epithelium and Glands

  1. The noncellular substances found between the cells are known as
    intercellular substances
  2. What are the functions of the intercellular substance
    holds the cells together and provides for passage of nutrients and waste materials from the cells to the capillaries and vice versa
  3. structures produced by cells composed of complicated molecules
    fibers
  4. specialized organs inside cytoplasm
    organelles
  5. Each cell consist of a
    • membrane
    • cytoplasm
    • organelles
    • inclusions
  6. Exocytosis
    active transport of material from within the cell into the extracellular environment
  7. Endocytosis
    taking up materials from the environment (extracellular) into the cell
  8. What are the two types of endocytosis
    • Pinocytosis
    • Phagocytosis
  9. What is pinocytosis
    extracellular fluid is ingested by the cell, like drinking in of fluid
  10. What is phagocytosis
    the engulfing and then digesting of solid waste and foreign material by the cell
  11. What is another name for cell membrane
    Plasma
  12. What are some organelles inside the cell
    • Nucleus
    • Mitochondria
    • Ribosomes
    • Endoplasmic reticulum
    • Golgi complex
    • Lysosomes
  13. cytoplasm contains the structures necessary
    for adsorption and for creation of cell products
  14. Inactive cells often have a ______ , _______ nucleus without _______
    • smaller, darker
    • nucleoli
  15. Nucleolus
    round, dense bodies that put together the RNA contained in the nucleus
  16. ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM WITH RIBOSOMES
    • Parallel membrane-bound sacs that contain newly acquired and synthesized protein
    • Protein producing factories The ribosomes tell the ER what to make
  17. What is the function of the GOLGI’S APPARATUS
    HELPS TO SORT, CONDENSE, PACKAGE AND DELIVER PROTEINS ARRIVING FROM THE E.R.
  18. What is the function of the MITOCHONDRIA
    They are important in generating energy and a major source of ATP
  19. What are LYSOSOMES
    Small, membrane-bound organelles that contain a variety of acid hydrolase and digestive enzymes to help break down substances inside and outside the cell
  20. What are inclusions
    These are not actually produced in the cell, but are stored in the cell to be used at a later time. These include fat droplets, and glycogen. These are NOT organelles
  21. Extensions from the cell membrane
    cilia or flagella
  22. What is the function of the cilia/flagella
    These increase the surface area of the cell, help move substances along the surface of the cell or may help with cell mobility
  23. What are the four phases of mitosis
    • prophase
    • metaphase
    • anaphase
    • telophase
  24. What events occur in the prophase
    the genetic material forms chromosomes and the nucleolus and nucleus lose their membranes
  25. What events occur during metaphase
    where the chromosomes line up along the midline of the cell.
  26. What events happen during anaphase
    where the chromosomes split and migrate toward opposite ends of the cell
  27. What events happen during telephase
    the cells split into two daughter cells
  28. What are the four basic tissues
    • epithelial
    • connective
    • muscle
    • nerve tissues
  29. What is epithelium
    the tissue that covers and lines the external and internal body surfaces including blood and lymph vessels, small cavities within the body
  30. What is the function of epithelium
    serves as a protective covering and also controls tissue absorption and secretion
  31. Epithelium of the skin and oral regions is derived from
    ectoderm
  32. Epithelial tissue renews itself by
    mitosis
  33. Epithelial cells are closely bound to each other by
    desmosomes
  34. Epithelial cells are ________and cellular nutrition are obtained by _______
    • avascular: no blood supply
    • diffusion from the underlying connective tissue
  35. The superficial part of the basement membrane is called the
    basal lamina
  36. Basil lamina is produced by the
    epithelium
  37. What are the two layers of the basal lamina
    lamina lucida and lamina densa
  38. The _______ is a clear layer that is closest to the epithelium
    lamina lucida
  39. The ______ is a dense layer, which is closer to the connective tissue
    lamina densa
  40. The deeper layer of the basement membrane is called the ________ which consist of ________ produced by the ______
    • reticular lamina
    • collagen fibers
    • underlying connective tissue
  41. Describe transitional epithelium and what is an example
    • epithelium which when stretched out looks like stratified squamous and when relaxed looks like stratified cuboidal
    • Ex. epithelium lining the bladder
  42. Where is simple epithelium found
    only in areas of the body that are subjected to little or no friction in functional use
  43. Stratified epithelium consists of cells that are
    similar in shape but are arranged in layers
  44. The most sturdy of all of the epithelium is the
    stratified squamous epithelium
  45. Stratified squamous epithelium makes up both the surface of the ______ and the surface of the ______
    • skin
    • mucous membranes of the oral cavity
  46. The epithelial cells of the deepest layer are called
    basal cells
  47. Basal cells undergoes frequent ______ which causes them to _______
    • mitosis
    • slowly move toward the outer surface
  48. keratinized layer
    • a tough resistant layer
    • dead surface cells lose their nuclei
  49. The most heavily keratinized epithelium of the body is found on the
    palms of the hands and soles of the feet
  50. Covering and lining epithelium do not contain
    blood vessels
  51. _________ and ________ occur as the lining of some of the larger ducts of glands, such as the large ducts of the major salivary glands
    Stratified cuboidal and stratified columnar epithelium
  52. __________ make up the epithelial part of the mucous membrane that lines the upper respiratory tract
    Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
  53. The tissue renewal rate is high for
    epithelial tissues
  54. The gingival epithelium that attaches to the tooth surface (epithelial attachment) has a renewal rate of about
    4 to 6 days
  55. The renewal rate of the cheek is
    10 to 14 days
  56. Glands fall under the classification of ______ because of the way they develop
    epithelium
  57. The epithelial cells of glandular tissue grow _______ into the future ______ and develop _______ shapes connected to the surface by ______
    • downward
    • connective tissue
    • sack-like
    • tubes
  58. secretory units
    sacs formed, which will be covered in connective tissue
  59. The tubes leading away from the secretory unit are the gland _____
    ducts
  60. glands that have ducts are called
    exocrine
  61. glands that do not have ducts are called
    endocrine glands
  62. What is the function of the gland ducts
    help lead the cell product out of the gland to the surface of the epithelium
  63. A gland with units shaped like a grape are called
    acinar glands
  64. Glands with one secretory unit are called
    simple glands
  65. glands with multiple secretory units are called
    compound glands
  66. Image Upload 1
    compound glands
  67. A gland that consist of only one cell
    goblet cell
  68. Where are goblet cells found
    Goblet cells are seen in the small and large intestine and in the mucosa of the trachea and bronchi
  69. A good example of the simple straight tubular gland is
    the intestinal gland in the digestive tract.
  70. what are compound tubular glands
    glands which have tubular secretory units that open into a branching duct system
  71. What is this a pic of and name the structuresImage Upload 2
    • Hemidesmosomes
    • TONOFILAMENTS
    • ATTACHMENT PLAQUE
    • COLLAGENFIBERS
    • CONNECTIVE TISSUE
Author
haitianwifey
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323819
Card Set
Chp 7/8a Overview of the cell/Epithelium and Glands
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Chp 7/8a Overview of the cell/Epithelium and Glands
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