Test 2 Part 1

  1. When detected at the earliest stages, oral cancer has an ___ survival rate
  2. What are the four risk factors of oral cancer
    • Age - Incidence peaks in persons 55 to 74 years.
    • Gender - Men are 2x more likely than women to develop it.
    • Sunlight - Exposure is a risk factor for lip cancer.
    • Tobacco and Alcohol Use - Use of either one increases risk; use in combination poses even higher risk
  3. What are the two lesions that might signal oral cancer
    • Leukoplakia (white lesions) - possible precursor to cancer
    • Erythroplakia (red lesions) - greater potential for becoming cancerous than leukoplakia
  4. What are some symptoms of oral cancer that patients might report
    • Soreness
    • Lump or thickening
    • Numbness
    • Hoarseness
    • Feeling as if something is caught in throat
    • Difficulty chewing or swallowing
    • Ear pain
    • Difficulty moving jaw or tongue
    • Jaw swelling that causes ill-fitting dentures
  5. What are the two components of the EO exam
    • A systematic visual inspection
    • Palpation
  6. What are the three types of palpitation methods
    • Bidigital
    • Bilateral
    • Bimanual
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  10. What is the technique used for palpitation
    Use circular motion to compress tissues against the underlying bone
  11. What are the four EO subgroups
    • Overall appraisal of head, neck, face, and skin
    • Temporomandibular joint
    • Salivary and thyroid glands
    • Lymph nodes of head and neck/Salivary and thyroid glands (Inferior border of mandible, SCM and Trachea).
  12. Crepitation
    dry, crackling sound, noted when patient opens and closes
  13. Luxation
    a complete dislocation. The head of the condyle moves anteriorly over the articular eminence and cannot be returned voluntarily
  14. Nodes can enlarge over ____ across with a virus
    a half-inch to 1 inch
  15. Nodes can enlarge over _____ across with a bacterial infection
    1 inch
  16. What are the nodes to palpate
    • Occipital
    • Postauricular (Exam question only)Preauricular
    • Submental
    • Submandibular
    • Cervical anterior
    • Cervial posterior
    • supraclavicular
  17. Where is the parotid gland located
    on the surface of the masseter muscle between the ear and jaw
  18. Where are the submandibular glands located
    below the jaw toward the back of the mouth
  19. Where are the sublingual glands located
    located under the tongue, beneath the mucous membrane of the floor of the mouth
  20. In the thyroid gland the left lobe  is frequently ____  than the right.
  21. What are the two types of skin cancer
    • Melanoma
    • Non-melanoma
  22. Name some of the aspects on melanoma
    • Much more likely to spread to other parts of the body
    • Account for more than 60% of skin cancer deaths
    • Always treatable if caught soon enough
  23. Name some of the aspects of non-melanoma
    • Most common cancers of the skin
    • Rarely spread to other parts of the body
    • Less likely than melanoma to be fatal
  24. What is a soft lesion
    An area of abnormal-appearing skin or oral mucosa that does not resemble the soft tissue surrounding it
  25. What are the two types of flat lesions
    • Macule
    • Patch
  26. What does it mean for a lesion to be Sessile
    base is as wide as the lesion itself
  27. What does it mean for a lesion to be Pedunculated
    attached by a narrow stalk
  28. What are the four types of elevated lesions
    • Papule
    • Plaque
    • Nodule
    • Wheel
  29. What are the three types of fluid filled lesions
    • Vesicle
    • Bulla
    • Pustule
  30. What are the two types of depressed lesions
    • Ulcers
    • Erosion
  31. Define Crust
    an outer layer, covering or scab. Formed from coagulated blood, serum or pus
  32. Define Exophytic
    growing outward
  33. Define Indurated
    hardened lesion
  34. Define Papillary
    Describing a small nipple-shaped projection of elevation usually found in clusters
  35. Define Pseudomembrane
    loose membrane of exudate. May contain organisms, precipitated fibrin, necrotic cells, inflammatory cells
  36. Oral cancer is the ______ deadliest type of cancer
  37. What are some of the qualities of infected lymph nodes
    • Swollen
    • feels a bit like a grape
    • Firm
    • Tender
    • Enlarged and warm
    • Bilateral swelling (on both sides of head or neck)
    • Freely moveable from underlying structures
  38. What are some qualities of malignant lymph nodes
    • Enlarged
    • Firm
    • Nontender
    • Matted (stuck to each other)
    • Fixed (stuck to underlying tissue)
    • Unilateral (enlarged on only one side of head or neck)
  39. Angioedema
    (swelling) of lower lip caused by allergy to latex gloves
  40. Opening of the parotid gland
    Stenson's duct
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    • Ranula
    • salivary stones
  42. Fungiform papilla is found ____
    • Anterior 2/3 of the mouth
    • contains taste buds
  43. Foliate papilla is found
    • On the posterior 1/3 on the lateral border of the tongue
    • contains taste buds
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    Atrophy tongue
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    Bifid tongue
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    crenated tongue
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    fissured tongue
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    pus ball on tonsils
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    deviated uvula
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    lichen planus
  53. If first molars are not present for classification of occlusion what can be substituted
  54. To determine the class of occlusion we look at the position of the _______ of the _______
    • Buccal groove
    • mandibular first molars
  55. Each maxillary tooth has a ________ to its mandibular counterpart by the distance of about ______
    • distal relationship
    • one half a tooth
  56. The ideal position of the canine teeth: The maxillary canine will occlude in the ______ and the ________
    • middle of the mandibular canine
    • mandibular first premolar
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    Class I occlusion
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    Class II occlusion division I
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    Class II division II
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    Class III occlusion
  61. What are the qualities of a class I occlusion
    Buccal groove of mandibular first molar and mesiobuccal cusp of maxillary first molar
  62. What are the qualities of a class II division I occlusion
    • Buccal groove of the mandibular 1st molar is distal to the MB cusp of the maxillary 1st molar
    • The maxillary anterior teeth are protruded
  63. What are the qualities of a class II division II occlusion
    • Buccal groove of the mandibular 1st molar is distal to the MB cusp of the maxillary 1st molar
    • The maxillary anterior teeth are retruded
  64. What are the qualities of a class III occlusion
    • Buccal groove of the mandibular 1st molar is mesial to the MB cusp of the maxillary 1st molar
    • At least the width of a premolar
  65. Malocclusion
    Any deviation from ideal positioning of the teeth
  66. Malocclusion affects:
    • Bite
    • Ability to maintain adequate plaque control
    • Speech development
    • Appearance
  67. Normal overbite is _____ the depth of the mandibular incisors
    one third
  68. What is end to end contact
    Contact between the cusp tips of both the maxillary and mandibular posterior teeth
  69. What kind of contact is this
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    Edge to edge
  70. What is underjet
    A horizontal relationship where the maxillary anteriors are lingual to the mandibular anteriors
  71. What is a crossbite
    A facially positioned mandibular tooth or teeth
  72. normal profile
  73. profile where mandible retrudes
  74. profile where mandible protrudes
  75. What is Labioversion or Buccoversion
    A tooth positioned more facially than normal
  76. What is Linguoversion
    A tooth positioned more lingually than normal
  77. What is Supraversion or Supraeruption
    A tooth positioned above the plane of occlusion
  78. Infraversion
    A tooth positioned below the plane of occlusion
  79. Torsiversion
    A rotated tooth
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  85. What are the reasons for recording lesions
    • To document the finding to meet standards of care.
    • To assist other clinicians in quickly locating the lesion.
    • For referrals to dental specialists.
    • To allow comparison of today’s findings with those of a week ago or months ago
  86. What are the characteristics of lesions that we look for
    • Anatomic location
    • Border traits
    • Margin traits
    • Color
    • Configuration
    • Dimensions
    • Primary type
  87. What are the two border traits
    Regular and Irregular
  88. What are the margin traits
    • Smooth
    • Raised
  89. What are the four types of configuration
    • Discrete
    • Grouped
    • Confluent
    • Linear
  90. What are the five primary types of lesions
    • Flat
    • Elevated
    • Fluid-filled
    • Depressed
    • Linear
  91. What are Nonblisterform lesions and what are the types
    • solid and do not contain fluid.
    • They may be papules, nodules, tumors, or plaques
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    malignant melanoma
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    squamous cell carcinoma
  97. Polyp
    mass of tissue that projects upward and outward
  98. Verrucous
    wart-like lesion
  99. Candidiasis
    a fungus, occurs in people with depressed immune systems. Naturally occurring flora that takes over
  100. Plaque
    A slightly raised lesion with a broad flat top
  101. Tumor
    A solid, raised mass that is larger than l cm. in diameter
  102. Pyogenic Granuloma
    pregnancy tumor, associated with poor OH
  103. Pericornitis
    tissue flap occurring over mandibular 3rd molars
  104. Lichen Planus
    White lesion with striations. Most commonly seen on buccal mucosa.
  105. Ulcers
    loss of epithelium, center is gray to yellow with a red border
  106. Erosion
    shallow depressed lesion, doesn’t extend through the epithelium to the underlying tissue
  107. What are the two types of non-melanoma
    • Basal cell 60%
    • Squamous cell 20%
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    Nicotine stomatitis
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    pyogenic granuloma
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    erosion- Buccal mucosa
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    confluent configuration
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    discrete configuration
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    grouped configuration
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    • papule
    • A small circumscribed lesion usually less than l cm in diameter that is elevated or protrudes above the surface of normal surrounding tissue
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    • Sessile Nodule
    • A palpable solid lesion up to 1 cm in diameter found in soft tissue
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    • Wheal
    • raised, irregular area of edema
  120. _______, _______  and ______ are characterized by their base or attachment.
    • Papules, nodules and tumors
    • sessile or pedunculated
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    apthous ulcer
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    primary herpetic stomatitis
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Card Set
Test 2 Part 1
Test 2 study guide