Psych 201 Test #1

  1. Developmental Science
    A field of study devoted to understanding constancy and change throughout the lifespan
  2. Theory
    An orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behavior
  3. What do theories provide
    They provide organizing frameworks for our observations of people
  4. What does a theory's continued existence depend on?
    Scientific verification
  5. Continuous Development
    A process of gradually augmenting the same types of skills that were there to begin with
  6. Discontinuous Development
    A process in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times
  7. Stages in discontinuous development
    Qualitative changes in thinking, feeling, and behaving that characterize specific periods of development
  8. Contexts
    Unique combinations of personal and environmental circumstances that can result in different paths of change
  9. What do different circumstances foster?
    Different intellectual capacities, social skills, and feelings about the self and others
  10. What is the nature-nurture controversy?
    Are genetic or environmental factors more important
  11. Plasticity
    Open to change in response to influential experiences
  12. Dynamic System
    A perpetually ongoing process, extending from conception to death, that is molded by a complex network of biological, psychological, and social influences
  13. Lifespan Perspective
    Development is lifelong, multidimensional and multidirectional, highly plastic, and affected by multiple, interacting forces
  14. What perspective believes that no single age period is supreme in its impact on the life course?
    Lifespan Perspective
  15. What are the major periods of human development?
    • Prenatal- conception to birth
    • Infancy and toddlerhood- birth to 2 years
    • Early childhood- 2 to 6 years
    • Middle childhood- 6 to 11 years 
    • Adolescence- 11 to 18 years 
    • Early adulthood- 18 to 40 years
    • Middle adulthood- 40 to 65 years
    • Late adulthood- 65 to death
  16. What can people of all ages improve?
    Current skills and develop new ones, including skills that compensate for reduced functioning
  17. Resilience
    The ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development
  18. Age-graded Influences
    Events that are strongly related to age and therefore fairly predictable in when they occur and how long they last
  19. History-graded Influences
    Explain why people born around the same time-called a cohort-tend to be alike in ways that set them apart from people born at other times
  20. Nonnormative Influences
    Events that are irregular: They happen to just one person or a few people and do not follow a predictable timetable
  21. G. Stanley Hall
    Founder of the child study movement
  22. Maturational Process
    A genetically determined series of events that unfold automatically, much like a flower
  23. Normative Approach
    Measures of behavior are taken on large numbers of individuals, and age-related averages are computed to represent typical development
  24. Who was the first to make to make knowledge about child development meaningful to parents by informing them of what to expect at each age?
  25. Who constructed the first successful intelligence test?
    Simon and Binet
  26. Psychoanalytic Theory
    People move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations How these conflicts are resolved determines the person's ability to learn, to get along with others, and to cope with anxiety
  27. Psychosexual Theory
    Emphasizes how parents manage their child's sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years is crucial for healthy personality development
  28. What did Freud believe the relations established among the id, ego, and superego during the preschool years determine?
    The individual's basic personality
  29. Who's theory was the first to stress the influence of the early child-parent relationship on development?
  30. What was wrong with Freud's theory?
    It overemphasized the influence of sexual feelings in development, it was based on the problems of sexually, repressed, well-to-do adults in nineteenth-century Viennese society, didn't apply to other cultures, and he didn't study children directly
  31. Psychosocial Theory
    Erikson emphasized that in addition to mediating between id impulses and superego demands, the ego makes a positive contribution development, acquiring attitudes and skills that make the individual an active, contributing member of society
  32. What are Freud's stages?
    • Oral: Birth-1 year
    • Anal: 1-3 years
    • Phallic: 3-6 years
    • Latency: 6-11 years
    • Genital: Adolescence
  33. What are Erikson's stages?
    • Basic trust verses mistrust: birth to 1 year
    • Autonomy verses shame and doubt: 1-3 years
    • Initiative verses guilt: 3-6 years
    • Industry verses inferiority: 6-11 years
    • Identity verses role confusion: Adolescence
    • Intimacy verses isolation: early adulthood
    • Generativity verses stagnation: middle adulthood
    • Integrity verses despair: old age
  34. Behaviorism
    Directly observable events--stimuli and responses--are the appropriate focus of study
  35. Who discovered classical conditioning?
  36. What did Watson conclude about environment due to the Albert experiment?
    Environment is the supreme force in development and that adults can mold children's behavior by carefully controlling stimulus-response associations
  37. How did Watson view development?
    As a continuous process--a gradual increase with age in the number and strength of these associations
  38. Operant conditioning theory
    Skinner believed that the frequency of a behavior can be increased by following it with a wide variety of reinforcers or decreased through punishments
  39. Social learning theory
    The most influential, Albert Bandura, emphasizing modeling, also known as imitation or observational learning, as a powerful source of development
  40. Behavior modification
    Consists of procedures that combine conditioning and modeling to eliminate undesirable behaviors and increase desirable responses
  41. Cognitive-developmental theory
    Children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world
  42. What are Piaget's stages?
    • Sensorimotor: birth to 2 years
    • Preoperational: 2-7 years
    • Concrete operation: 7-11 years
    • Formal operation: 11 years on
  43. Information processing theory
    The human mind might also be viewed as a symbol-manipulating system through which information flows
  44. How does information processing theory view development?
  45. Developmental cognitive neuroscience
    Brings together researchers from psychology, biology, neuroscience, and medicine to study the relationship between changes in the brain and the developing person's cognitive processing and behavior patterns
  46. Ethology
    Concerned with the adaptive, or survival, value of behavior and its evolutionary history
  47. Critical period
    A limited time span during which the individual is biologically prepared to acquire certain adaptive behaviors but need the support of an appropriately stimulating environment
  48. Sensitive period
    A time that is optimal for certain capacities to emerge in which the individual is especially responsive to environmental influences. It's boundaries are less well-defined than those of a critical period. Development can occur later, but it is harder to induce
  49. Who applied ethological theory to the understanding of the human infant-caregiver relationship?
    John Bowlby
  50. Evolutionary developmental psychology
    Seeks to understand the adaptive value of specieswide cognitive, emotional, and social competencies as those competencies change with age
  51. What does evolutionary development aim to understand?
    The person-environment system throughout the lifespan
  52. Sociocultural Theory
    Focuses on how culture--the values, beliefs, customs, and skills of a social group--is transmitted to the next generation
  53. What did Vygotsky's believe?
    That as adults and more expert peers help children master culturally meaningful activities, the communication between them becomes part of children's thinking
  54. Ecological systems theory
    Views the person as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment
  55. Microsystem
    Innermost level of the environment and consists of activities and interaction patterns in the person's immediate surroundings
  56. Mesosystem
    The second level of Brofenbrenner's model that encompasses connections between microsystems
  57. Exosystem
    Consists of social settings that do not contain the developing person but nevertheless affect experiences in immediate settings
  58. Macrosystem
    The outermost level and consists of cultural values, laws, customs, and resources
  59. Ecological transitions
    The shifts in contexts--ecological transitions--are often important turning points in development
  60. Chronosystem
    The temporal dimension of Brofenbrenner's model
  61. What do psychoanalytic perspective and ethology emphasize?
    Emotional and social development
  62. What theories stress changes in thinking?
    Cognitive-developmental theory, information processing, and sociocultural theory
  63. Research methods
    The specific activities of participants
  64. Research designs
    Overall plans of research studies that permit the best possible test of the investigator's hypothesis
  65. Structured Observations
    The investigator sets up a laboratory situation that evokes the behavior of interest so that every participant has equal opportunity to display the response
  66. Naturalistic Observation
    Go into the field, or natural environment, and record the behavior of interest
  67. Clinical Interview
    Researchers use a flexible, conversational style to probe for the participant's point of view
  68. Structured Interviews
    Each participant is asked the same set of questions in the same way
  69. Clinical, or case study, method
    Brings together a wide range of information on one person, including interviews, observations, and test scores
  70. Ethnography
    Like the clinical method, ethnographic research is a descriptive, qualitative technique. But instead at aiming to understand a single individual, it is directed toward understanding a culture or a distinct social group through participant observation
  71. Correlational Design
    Researchers gather information on individuals, generally in natural life circumstances, without altering their experiences. Then they look at relationships between participants' characteristics and their behavior or development
  72. Correlation coefficient
    A number that describes how two measures, or variables, are associated with each other
  73. Experimental design
    Permits inferences about cause and effect because researchers use an evenhanded procedure to assign people to two or more treatment conditions
  74. Independent variable
    The one the investigator expects to cause change in another variable
  75. Dependent variable
    The one the investigator expects to be influenced by the independent variable
  76. Random assignment
    An unbiased procedure, such as drawing numbers out of a hat or flipping a coin, investigators increase the chances that participants' characteristics will be equally distributed across treatment groups
  77. Field experiments
    Investigators capitalize on opportunities to assign participants randomly to treatment conditions in natural settings
  78. Longitudinal design
    Participants are studied repeatedly, and changes are noted as they get older
  79. Cohort effects
    Individuals born in the same time period are influenced by a particular set of historical and cultural conditions. Results based on one cohort may not apply to people developing at other times
  80. Cross-sectional design
    Groups of people differing in age are studied at the same point in time
  81. Sequential designs
    They conduct several similar cross-sectional or longitudinal studies
  82. What are the participants' rights?
    Protection from harm, informed consent, privacy, knowledge of results, beneficial treatments
  83. Institutional review boards (IRB)
    Weigh the costs of the research to participants in terms of inconvenience and possible psychological or physical injury against the study's value for advancing knowledge and improving conditions of life
  84. Debriefing
    The investigator provides a full account and justification of the activities once the research session is over
  85. Chromosomes
    Rodlike structures which store and transmit genetic information
  86. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
    The chemical that chromosomes are made up of
  87. Gene
    A segment of DNA along the length of the chromosome
  88. Mitosis
    A unique feature of DNA is that it can duplicate itself
  89. Gamates
    Sex cells, and sperm and ovum
  90. Meiosis
    A cell division process in which gametes are formed. It halves the number of chromosomes normally present in body cells.
  91. Zygote
    When sperm and ovum unite at conception result in a cell called Zygote
  92. How many sperm and ovum are there after meiosis?
    4 sperm, 1 ovum
  93. Autosomes
    22 out of 23 chromosomes are matching pairs
  94. Sex chromosomes
    The 23 third pair
  95. Dizygotic twins
    Fraternal, the most common type of multiple offspring, resulting from the release and fertilization of two ova
  96. Monozygotic twins
    Identical, a zygote that has started to duplicate separates into two clusters of cells that develop into two individuals. They have the same genetic makeup
  97. Allele
    Two forms of each gene occur at the same place on the chromosomes, one inherited from the mother and one from the father
  98. Homozygous
    If the alleles from both parents are alike they will display the inherited trait
  99. Heterozygous
    If the alleles differ the relationships between the alleles determine the phenotype
  100. Dominant-recessive inheritance
    Only one allele affects the child's characteristics. It is called dominant; the second allele, which has no effect, is called recessive
  101. Carriers
    Heterozygous individuals with just one recessive allele can pass that trait to their children
  102. Incomplete dominance
    A pattern of inheritance in which both alleles are expressed in the phenotype, resulting in a combined trait, or one that is intermediate between the two
  103. X-linked inheritance
    When a harmful allele is carried on the x chromosome
  104. Genomic imprinting
    Alleles are imprinted, or chemically marked, so that one pair member (either the mother's or the father's) is activated, regardless of its makeup
  105. Mutuation
    A sudden but permanent change in a segment of DNA
  106. Polygenic inheritance
    Many genes influence the characteristic in question
  107. Genetic counseling
    A communication process designed to help couples assess their chances of giving birth to a baby with a hereditary disorder and choose the best course of action in view of risks and family goals
  108. Donar insemination
    Injection of sperm from an anonymous man into a woman
  109. In vitro fertilization
    A woman is given hormones that stimulate the ripening of several ova. These are removed surgically and placed in a dish of nutrients, to which sperm is added. Once ovum is fertilized and begins to duplicate into several cells, it is injected into the mother's uterus
  110. Surrogate motherhood
    In vitro fertilization may be used to impregnate a woman with a couple's fertilized ovum
  111. Prenatal diagnostic methods
    Medical procedures that permit detection of developmental problems before birth
  112. Gene therapy
    Correcting genetic abnormalities by delivering DNA carrying a functioning gene to the cells
  113. Proteomics
    Scientists modify gene-specified proteins involved in biological aging and disease
  114. Coparenting
    Mutually supporting each other's parenting behaviors
  115. Socioeconomic status
    Researchers assess a family's standing by looking at years of education, prestige of one's job and the skills it requires, and income
  116. Subcultures
    Groups of people with beliefs and customs that differ from those of the larger culture
  117. Extended-family households
    Three or more generations live together
  118. Collectivist societies
    People define themselves as part of a group and stress group goals over individual goals
  119. Individualistic societies
    People think of themselves as separate entities and are largely concerned with their own personal needs
  120. Public policies
    laws and government programs designed to improve current conditions
  121. Behavioral genetics
    A field devoted to uncovering the contributions of nature and nurture to this diversity in human traits and abilities
  122. Heritability estimates
    measure the extent to which individual differences in complex traits in a specific population are due to genetic factors
  123. Kinship studies
    Compare the characteristics of family members
  124. Gene-environment interaction
    Because of their genetic makeup, individuals differ in their responsiveness to qualities of the environment. People have unique, genetically influenced reactions to particular experiences
  125. Canalization
    The tendency of heredity to restrict the development of some characteristics to just one or a few outcomes
  126. Gene-environment correlation
    Our genes influence the environments to which we are exposed
  127. Niche-picking
    Tendency to actively choose environments that complete our heredity
  128. Epigenesis
    Development resulting from ongoing, bidirectional exchanges between heredity and all levels of the environment
  129. Ovaries
    Two walnut-sized organs located deep inside her abdomen
  130. Fallopian tubes
    Long, thin structures that lead to the hollow, soft-lined uterus
  131. Corpus luteum
    The spot on the ovary from which the egg is released
  132. Testes
    Two glands located in the scrotum, sacs that lie just behind the penis
  133. Cervix
    Opening of the uterus
  134. Period of the Zygote
    Lasts about two weeks from fertilization until the tiny mass of cells drifts down and out of the fallopian tube and attaches itself to the wall of the uterus
  135. Blastocyst
    60-70 cells exist to form a hollow, fluid-filled ball
  136. Embryonic disk
    The cells on the inside that become the new organism
  137. Trophoblast
    The outer ring of cells become the structures that provide protective covering and nourishment
  138. Implantation
    Between the 7th and 9th day the blastocyst burrows deep into the uterine lining
  139. Amnion
    A membrane that encloses the developing organism in amniotic fluid, which helps keep the temperature of the prenatal world constant and provides a cushion against any jolts caused by the woman's movements
  140. Chorion
    Surrounds the amnio. From the chorion, tiny hairlike villi, or blood vessels, emerge
  141. Placenta
    Permits food and oxygen to reach the organism and waste products to be carried away
  142. Umbilical cord
    Contains one large vein that delivers blood loaded with nutrients and two arteries that remove waste products
  143. Period of the Embryo
    Lasts from implantation to the 8th week of pregnancy. The most rapid prenatal changes take place as the groundwork is laid for all body structures and internal organs
  144. Ectoderm
    Will become the nervous system and skin
  145. Mesoderm
    Will develop the muscles, skeleton, circulatory system, and other internal organs
  146. Endoderm
    Will become the digestive system, lungs, urinary tract, and glands
  147. Neural tube
    Primitive spinal cord
  148. Neurons
    Nerve cells that store and transmit information
  149. Period of the Fetus
    9th week to the end of pregnancy is the longest prenatal period
  150. When does the genitals form?
    12th week
  151. Trimesters
    Prenatal development divided into three equal time periods
  152. Vernix
    A white cheese-like substance protects its skin from chapping during the long months spent bathing in the amniotic fluid
  153. Lanugo
    White downy hair appears over the entire body, helping the vernix stick to the skin
  154. Glial cells
    Support and feed the neurons
  155. Synapses
  156. Age of viability
    The point at which the baby can first survive is between 22 and 26 weeks
  157. Cerebral cortex
    Seat of human intelligence
  158. Habituation
  159. Teratogen
    Any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period
  160. When serious defects are mostly likely to occur during which prenatal stage?
    Embryonic period
  161. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)
    Encompasses a range of physical, mental, and behavioral outcomes caused by prenatal alcohol exposure
  162. Fetal alcohol syndrom (FAS)
    Distinguished by slow physical growth, a pattern of three facial abnormalities (short eyelid openings; a thin upper lip; a smooth or flatted philtrum, or indentation running from the bottom of the nose to the center of the upper lip), brain injury evident in a small head and impairment in at least three areas of functioning
  163. Partial fetal alchohol syndrom (p-FAS)
    Two of the three facial abnormalities, brain injury in at least three areas of impaired functioning
  164. Alcohol-related neurodevelopment disorder (ARND)
    At least three areas of mental functioning are impaired, despite typical psychical growth and absence of facial abnormalities
  165. What does maternal emotional stress  during pregnancy predict?
    Childhood weakened immune system functioning and increased susceptibility to infectious disease
  166. Rh factor incompatibly
    When the mother is Rh-negative and the father Rh-positive, the baby may inherit the father's Rh-positive blood type. If even a little of the fetus's Rh-positive blood crosses the placenta into the Rh-negative mother's bloodstream, she begins to form antibodies to the foreign Rh protein. If these enter the fetus's system, they destroy red blood cells, reducing the oxygen supply to organs and tissues
  167. Preeclampsia
    Sometimes called toxemia, blood pressure increases sharply and the face, hands, and feet swell in the last half of pregnancy
  168. Apgar scale
    To assess the newborn's physical condition quickly
  169. Natural, or prepared, childbirth
    A group of techniques aimed at reducing pain and medical intervention and making childbirth a rewarding experience
  170. Anoxia
    Inadequate oxygen supply
  171. Breech position
    Turned so that the buttocks or feet would be delivered first
  172. Fetal monitors
    Electronic instruments that track the baby's heart rate during labor
  173. Analgesics
    Drugs used to relieve pain
  174. Cesarean delivery
    A surgical birth where the doctor makes an incision in the mother's abdomen and lifts the baby out of the uterus
  175. Preterm infants
    Born several weeks or more before their due date
  176. Small-for-date infants
    Below their expected weight considering length of the pregnancy
  177. Isolette
    Enclosed bed
  178. Infant mortality
    The number of deaths in the first year of life per 1,000 live births
  179. Neonatal mortality
    The rate of death within the first month of life
  180. Reflex
    An inborn, automatic response to a particular form of stimulation
  181. States of arousal
    Degrees of sleep and wakefulness
  182. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep
    Irregular sleep where brain-wave activity is remarkably similar to that of the waking state. Heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing are uneven
  183. Non-rapid-eye movement (NREM) sleep
    Regular sleep where the body is almost motionless, and brain-wave activity, heart rate, and breathing are slow and even
  184. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
    The unexpected death, usually at night, of an infant under 1 year of age that remains unexplained after thorough investigation
  185. Colic
    Persistent crying that is high-pitched and harsh sounding
  186. When are infants highly sensitive to pain?
    At birth
  187. Endorphins
    Painkilling chemicals in the brain
  188. What is the least developed sense at birth?
  189. Retina
    Membrane lining the inside of the eye that captures light and transforms it into messages that are sent to the brain
  190. Lens
    Permits us to adjust our visual focus to varying differences
  191. Visual acuity
    Fineness of discrimination
  192. Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS)
    Evaluates the newborn's reflexes, muscle tone, state changes, responsiveness to physical and social stimuli, and other reactions
  193. Oxytocin
    Mothers begin producing this hormone at the end of pregnancy which stimulates uterine contractions; causes the breasts to "let down" milk; induces a calm relax mood; and promotes responsiveness to the baby
Card Set
Psych 201 Test #1
History, Theories, and Research Strategies Genetic and Environmental Foundations Prenatal Development, Birth, and the Newborn Baby