1. inorganic compound
    any compound that does not contain carbon
  2. organic compound
    any compound of carbon and another element or a radical
  3. element
    one of a class of substances that cannot beseparated into simpler substances by chemical means
  4. atom
    the smallest particle of an element that can exist either alone or in combination
  5. chemical symbol
    an abbreviation or short representation of a chemical element; the symbols in the periodictable
  6. electron
    A stable elementary particle in the lepton family having a massat rest of 9.107 × 10 -28 grams and an electric charge ofapproximately -1.602 × 10 -19 coulombs.
  7. proton
    a stable, positively charged elementary particle, found in atomicnuclei in numbers equal to the atomic number of the element.
  8. Neutron
    an uncharged elementary particle that has a mass nearly equal tothat of the proton and is present in all known atomic nuclei except the hydrogen nucleus
  9. atomic number
    The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
  10. periodic table
    A table in which the chemical elements are arranged in order ofincreasing atomic number
  11. electron configuration
    the particular distribution of electrons among available shells
  12. atomic mass
    The mass of a given atom or molecule, expressed in atomic mass units
  13. amu (dalton)
    • A unit of mass equal to 1 / 12 the mass of an atom of the mostcommon isotope of carbon (carbon 12), which is assigned a
    • massof 12 and has a value of 1.660 × 10 -24 grams.
  14. isotope
    One of two or more atoms that have the same atomic number (thesame number of protons) but a different number of neutrons.
  15. radioisotope
    A radioactive isotope of a chemical element
  16. electron orbital
    a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom
  17. electron shell
    a grouping of electrons surrounding the nucleus of an atom; "the chemical properties of an atom are determined by the outermostelectron shell"
  18. chemical reaction
    A process in which atoms of the same or differentelements rearrange themselves to form a new substance. While they do so, they either absorb heat or give it off.
  19. chemical compound
    a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight
  20. molecule
    A group of two or more atoms linked together by sharing electrons in a chemical bond
  21. chemical formula
    a representation of a substance using symbols for its constituent elements
  22. simplest formula
    the smallest set of possible whole numbers for the atoms in a molecule
  23. molecular formula
    A chemical formula that shows the total number and kinds of atomsin a molecule, but not their structural arrangement
  24. structural formula
    A chemical formula that shows how the atoms making up a compound are arranged within the molecule
  25. molecular mass
    A number equal to the sum of the atomic masses of the atoms in a molecule.
  26. Mole
    The amount of an element, compound, or other substance that ha sthe same number of basic particles as 12 grams of Carbon-12.
  27. Avogadro’s number
    The number of atoms or molecules in a mole of a substance,approximately 6.0225 × 10 23
  28. reactant
    A substance participating in a chemical reaction, especially onepresent at the start of the reaction
  29. product
    a substance produced from one or more other substances as a result of chemical change
  30. dynamic equilibrium
    a state of balance achieved by two forces in motion; also, a state of apparent repose between two reactions going in opposite directions at equal speed
  31. chemical bond
    A force of attraction that holds atoms or ions together in a molecule or crystal. Bonds are usually created by a transfer orsharing of one or more electrons
  32. bond energy
    a measure of bond strength in a chemical bond. It is the heat required to break Avogadro's number of molecules into their individual atoms
  33. covalent bond
    A chemical bond formed when electrons are shared between two atoms
  34. covalent compound
    a molecule formed by covalent bonds, in which the atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons
  35. single covalent bond
    sharing of only one pair of electrons between two atoms
  36. double covalent bond
    sharing of two pair of electrons between two atoms
  37. triple covalent bond
    sharing of three pair of electrons between two atoms
  38. nonpolar covalent bond
    electrons are shared between elements having a difference in electro negativity of less than 0.5
  39. polar covalent bond
    bond in which electrons are shared between elements having a differencein electronegativity of between 0.5 and ~2.0
  40. non polar molecule
    Hydrophobic; describing molecules or groups that are poorly soluble in water. These molecules would be composed either of elements having nonpolar covalent bonds or polar covalent bonds that cancel each other out.
  41. polar molecule
    Hydrophilic,or "water-loving"; describing molecules or groups that are soluble in water. These moleculeswould be composed of elements having polar covalent bonds that do not cancel each other out
  42. ion
    An atom or a group of atoms that has an electric charge.
  43. ionic bond
    A chemical bond formed between two ions with opposite charges.
  44. ionic compound
    a chemical compound of cations and anions which are held together by ionic bonds in a lattice structure
  45. solute
    A substance that is dissolved in another substance (a solvent),forming a solution
  46. hydration
    A compound produced by combining a substance chemically with water
  47. solvent
    A substance that can dissolve another substance, or in which another substance is dissolved, forming a solution.
  48. Solution
    A mixture in which particles of one or more substances (the solute) are distributed uniformly throughout another substance (the solvent), so that the mixture is homogeneous at the molecular or ionic level.
  49. hydrogen bond
    A chemical bond formed between an electropositive atom (typically hydrogen) and a strongly electro negative atom, such as oxygen or nitrogen.
  50. redox reaction
    (shorthand for reduction-oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed
  51. oxidation
    The chemical combination of a substance with oxygen
  52. reduction
    A chemical reaction in which an atom or ion gains electrons,thus undergoing a decrease in valence
  53. hydrophilic
    Having an affinity for water; readily absorbing or dissolving in water
  54. hydrophobic
    Repelling, tending not to combine with, or unable to dissolve in water
  55. cohesion
    The force of attraction that holds molecules of a given substance together
  56. adhesion
    The force of attraction that causes two different substances to join
  57. capillary action
    The movement of a liquid along the surface of a solid caused bythe attraction of molecules of the liquid to the molecules of the solid
  58. surface tension
    A property of liquids such that their surfaces behave like a thin,elastic film
  59. kinetic energy
    The energy possessed by a system or object as a result of its motion.
  60. Heat
    A form of energy associated with the motion of atoms or molecules and capable of being transmitted
  61. heat of vaporization
    The amount of heat required to convert a liquid into a gas at constant temperature and pressure
  62. specific heat
    the number of calories required to raise the temperature of 1gram of a substance 1°C, or the number of BTU's per pound per degree F calorie A unit of energy equal to the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius
  63. Acid
    Any of a class of compounds that form hydrogen ions when dissolved in water, and whose aqueous solutions react with bases and certain metals to form salts
  64. Base
    Any of a class of compounds that form hydroxyl ions(OH) when dissolved in water, and whose aqueous solutions react with acids to form salts.
  65. Salt
    Any of a large class of chemical compounds formed when apositively charged ion (a cation) bonds with a negativelycharged ion (an anion), as when a halogen bonds with a metal.
  66. pH
    A numerical measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution,usually measured on a scale of 0 to 14
  67. neutral solution
    An aqueous solution with a pH of 7.0
  68. acidic solution
    any aqueous solution which has a pH < 7.0
  69. basic solution
    An aqueoussolution containing more OH- ions than H+ ions. An aqueous solution with a pH greater than 7
  70. buffer
    A substance that prevents change in the acidity of a solution when an acid or base is added to the solution or when the solution is diluted
  71. atomic
    nucleus the positively charged dense center of an atom
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