any compound of carbon and another element or a radical
one of a class of substances that cannot beseparated into simpler substances by chemical means
the smallest particle of an element that can exist either alone or in combination
an abbreviation or short representation of a chemical element; the symbols in the periodictable
A stable elementary particle in the lepton family having a massat rest of 9.107 × 10 -28 grams and an electric charge ofapproximately -1.602 × 10 -19 coulombs.
a stable, positively charged elementary particle, found in atomicnuclei in numbers equal to the atomic number of the element.
an uncharged elementary particle that has a mass nearly equal tothat of the proton and is present in all known atomic nuclei except the hydrogen nucleus
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
A table in which the chemical elements are arranged in order ofincreasing atomic number
the particular distribution of electrons among available shells
The mass of a given atom or molecule, expressed in atomic mass units
A unit of mass equal to 1 / 12 the mass of an atom of the mostcommon isotope of carbon (carbon 12), which is assigned a
massof 12 and has a value of 1.660 × 10 -24 grams.
One of two or more atoms that have the same atomic number (thesame number of protons) but a different number of neutrons.
A radioactive isotope of a chemical element
a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom
a grouping of electrons surrounding the nucleus of an atom; "the chemical properties of an atom are determined by the outermostelectron shell"
A process in which atoms of the same or differentelements rearrange themselves to form a new substance. While they do so, they either absorb heat or give it off.
a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight
A group of two or more atoms linked together by sharing electrons in a chemical bond
a representation of a substance using symbols for its constituent elements
the smallest set of possible whole numbers for the atoms in a molecule
A chemical formula that shows the total number and kinds of atomsin a molecule, but not their structural arrangement
A chemical formula that shows how the atoms making up a compound are arranged within the molecule
A number equal to the sum of the atomic masses of the atoms in a molecule.
The amount of an element, compound, or other substance that ha sthe same number of basic particles as 12 grams of Carbon-12.
The number of atoms or molecules in a mole of a substance,approximately 6.0225 × 10 23
A substance participating in a chemical reaction, especially onepresent at the start of the reaction
a substance produced from one or more other substances as a result of chemical change
a state of balance achieved by two forces in motion; also, a state of apparent repose between two reactions going in opposite directions at equal speed
A force of attraction that holds atoms or ions together in a molecule or crystal. Bonds are usually created by a transfer orsharing of one or more electrons
a measure of bond strength in a chemical bond. It is the heat required to break Avogadro's number of molecules into their individual atoms
A chemical bond formed when electrons are shared between two atoms
a molecule formed by covalent bonds, in which the atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons
single covalent bond
sharing of only one pair of electrons between two atoms
double covalent bond
sharing of two pair of electrons between two atoms
triple covalent bond
sharing of three pair of electrons between two atoms
nonpolar covalent bond
electrons are shared between elements having a difference in electro negativity of less than 0.5
polar covalent bond
bond in which electrons are shared between elements having a differencein electronegativity of between 0.5 and ~2.0
non polar molecule
Hydrophobic; describing molecules or groups that are poorly soluble in water. These molecules would be composed either of elements having nonpolar covalent bonds or polar covalent bonds that cancel each other out.
Hydrophilic,or "water-loving"; describing molecules or groups that are soluble in water. These moleculeswould be composed of elements having polar covalent bonds that do not cancel each other out
An atom or a group of atoms that has an electric charge.
A chemical bond formed between two ions with opposite charges.
a chemical compound of cations and anions which are held together by ionic bonds in a lattice structure
A substance that is dissolved in another substance (a solvent),forming a solution
A compound produced by combining a substance chemically with water
A substance that can dissolve another substance, or in which another substance is dissolved, forming a solution.
A mixture in which particles of one or more substances (the solute) are distributed uniformly throughout another substance (the solvent), so that the mixture is homogeneous at the molecular or ionic level.
A chemical bond formed between an electropositive atom (typically hydrogen) and a strongly electro negative atom, such as oxygen or nitrogen.
(shorthand for reduction-oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed
The chemical combination of a substance with oxygen
A chemical reaction in which an atom or ion gains electrons,thus undergoing a decrease in valence
Having an affinity for water; readily absorbing or dissolving in water
Repelling, tending not to combine with, or unable to dissolve in water
The force of attraction that holds molecules of a given substance together
The force of attraction that causes two different substances to join
The movement of a liquid along the surface of a solid caused bythe attraction of molecules of the liquid to the molecules of the solid
A property of liquids such that their surfaces behave like a thin,elastic film
The energy possessed by a system or object as a result of its motion.
A form of energy associated with the motion of atoms or molecules and capable of being transmitted
heat of vaporization
The amount of heat required to convert a liquid into a gas at constant temperature and pressure
the number of calories required to raise the temperature of 1gram of a substance 1°C, or the number of BTU's per pound per degree F calorie A unit of energy equal to the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius
Any of a class of compounds that form hydrogen ions when dissolved in water, and whose aqueous solutions react with bases and certain metals to form salts
Any of a class of compounds that form hydroxyl ions(OH) when dissolved in water, and whose aqueous solutions react with acids to form salts.
Any of a large class of chemical compounds formed when apositively charged ion (a cation) bonds with a negativelycharged ion (an anion), as when a halogen bonds with a metal.
A numerical measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution,usually measured on a scale of 0 to 14
An aqueous solution with a pH of 7.0
any aqueous solution which has a pH < 7.0
An aqueoussolution containing more OH- ions than H+ ions. An aqueous solution with a pH greater than 7
A substance that prevents change in the acidity of a solution when an acid or base is added to the solution or when the solution is diluted
nucleus the positively charged dense center of an atom