WLC 278

  1. beginning italian cinema
    began with short documentary, un umberto and margherita in 1896, shortly after the lumier brothers
  2. Napoleon's influence
    • wanted french influence in italian 
    • failing power, national sentiments from neighboring French revolution (inspired other countries)
  3. when italy took its shape now
    1918 (after WW1)
  4. italian cinema culture
    • 1. born into unstable environment w/ political desires 
    • 2. looked to its past for nationalism , heroism, patriotism, 
    • 3. took special interest in SPECIAL EFFECTS -> trend setter in design
    • a. ex/ pompeii
  5. melodrama
    • any dramatic, literary, or cinematic work in which typically sensational plot is designed to appeal strongly to the emotions and typically featuring exaggerated or stereotyped characters and exciting events
    • ex/ soap operas
    • Cabiria, 1914 . in the Resurgo movement
    • *theme of early silent Italian films
  6. Cabiria
    • girl captured by pirates in carthage, 
    • girl saved by roman noble slave
    • they escape, 
    • 1. 1st to capitalize w/ Gabriele Danunzio
    • a. legitimized cinema as an art form
    • 2. Director: giovani 
    • 3. Divismo: cult of the diva (kim kardashian, bridezillas)
    • a. special group of actresses , highly independent, highly sexualized, negative and positive 
    • 4. made it possible for female actresses to acquire higher salaries
  7. rise of Musselini->
    • 1. new era, unified but no divisma cult.
    • 2. Ventennio, divas make way for "Maciste figure" , greater feats accomplished than ordinary man
    • 3. screen goddesses: Isa Mirande, heroines, and as passive as "ingenue" , kind of dumb airy women
  8. italian fascism
    • 1. rooted in italian nationalism
    • A. respect for tradition
    • B. clear sense of a shared past among I ppl
    • C commitment to a modernized facility
    • D. emotion viewed as contmept; interferes man killing and dying for Mussolini
    • 2. Musselini believed gathering territory adds to added strength
  9. anti woman stories fluorished during fascism
    • 1. love was woman, and being anti love was considered manly and more warrior like 
    • 2. focused on violence and animal abuse
  10. Roman catholic church p.o.v
    • 1. opposed the fascism movie views of violence 
    • a. wanted free of obscenity and cruelty to animals
    • b. very narrow definition of what constituted deviant behavior and stores that could be construed as subversive of the government or religion
  11. Censorship boards
    • 1. by musselini
    • 2. govt sponsored film school, very few films outright fascism, 
    • 2. centro sperimentale: full of thinkers: pioneer the neo-realism movement after WWII.
    • 3. insisted on using standardized italian, not
  12. Neorealists (1940s-1950s)
    • 1. nationilism in new form : for a nations identity and future
    • 2. looked back at musselini with shame and crticism
    • 3. sought to show the pressures on the working and poor ppl
    • 4. thought regional dialiects were important in depicting communities and authenticism
    • 5. insisted on using real locations and natural light and sound.
    • 6. used unknown actors
    • 7. CAME BEFORE french new wave
    • 8. captured life of poor
  13. FRench new wave  vs. italian neorealist
    • 1. french new wave doesnt capture as much poverty and how they are trapped. 
    • 2. french new wave does have social "stirs", but this wasn't exactly Truffauts agenda. more of his goal was INTIMACY bet. audience and char.
    • 3. if social criticism in french new wave, it is 2ndary and/or incidental
  14. ricci and bike
    • 1. "how far can you push a man?"
    • 2. he gains context
    • 3. bicycle owner refuses to give into riot.
  15. context:
    refusal to depict individuals in terms that ignore social and cultural pressures around them
  16. pathos
    overly emotional
  17. polarities
    clear oppositions
  18. open ended ending
    life depicted "in shades of grey"
  19. open ended ending
    life depicted in "shades of grey"
  20. post neorealism
    • 1. Fellini: fascination in dreams and psycho-analysis.
    • a. fascination w/ interior reality , multiple realities ppl live their lives
    • 2. gives enough visuals, etc for audience to give their own conclusion
    • Ex/ La Dolce Vita
    • a. an aethetic of disparity
    • b. rejected unnecessary explanations, 
    • 3. Commedia all'italiana: dark comedies 
    • a. shows problems of the family, 
    • b. inward look to find italian identity 
    • c. cinema politico: ettore scola
  21. Neorealism:
    • a school of filmmaking in post-World War II Italy, approx. 198-1952, that emphasized lives of ordinary ppl & rejected studio sets, lighting, makeup, and professional actors in facor of location shooting nonprofessionals, and available light.
    • 2. most popular terms are pathos and polarities
  22. lap dissolve:
    cross fade. fading image on screen briefly while new image appears . for few seconds , both images on screen together.
  23. reverse shot
    • part of series of shots. creates illusion among relationship among characters or between gazes. used in highly emotional scenes. 
    • b. can be single montage or repeated several times.
    • c. 2nd shot is answer to 1st shot.
  24. long shot
    image shown from sufficient distance to reveal the context w/in which the characters live
  25. syncretism
    fusion of contradictory principles;
  26. commedia all'italiana
    a group of film durin a period of roughly 20 years, beginning in 1958, in which italan life and traditions were gently mocked
  27. cinema politico
    italian film movement which fluorished between 1968 and 1980, filled w/ angry determination to expose corruption and/or abuse of power
  28. 1897s-1930s:(early film in Japan)
    • 1. new emerging markets and birth of an industry
    • 2. observing Hollywood's managerial strategies and practices
  29. roots in feudalism vs. western -styled democratic ideology
    • 1. bushido
    • 2. WWII American occupation forces
  30. japanese film
    • 1. social criticism (like italian)
    • 2. critique differently
  31. akira kurosawa
  32. Meija Film
    1. Japanese
  33. Japanese New Wave cinema and beyond
  34. american and french cinema strategy for japan
    • within days cent film to japan to introduce new market
    • 2. 8 years later adapted their own film
  35. russo -japanese war
    • 1. over korea 
    • 2. russia wanted more sea area
    • 3. asian power
  36. Nikkatsu
    • 1. sent employees to hollywood to get managerial advice
    • 2. cut cost thru contract personnel & studio owned soundstages, props, and sets
  37. Japanese film
    • 1. different content, emerged when Japan was a futile country
    • 2. other countries have: upward mobility and enforced the same laws for all citizens
    • 3. Japan NOT above statement (do not make room for change, hierarchal)
  38. European feudalism
    way of structuring society around relationships derived from holding of land in exchange for service of labor
  39. japan feudalism
    japan feudalism: 12th-19th century
  40. knights/samurai
    • 1. knights : serve lords
    • a. code of chivalry
    • 2. samurai
    • b. bound by code of bushido
  41. lords:
    • offered payments for vassel's loyalty
    • 2. serfs received land from lord, was still controlled
  42. japanese samurai
    • tax system for samurai. (currency is rice)
    • b. samurai women were expected to be strong like men 
    • c. samurai were supposed to be artistic (unlike knights) 
    • d. ritual suicide (knights bound by religion to not do this) use harry carry
  43. japanese social structure
    • pyramid:
    • 1. emporer
    • 2. daimyo (wealthy landowners)
    • 3. samurai 
    • 4. peasants and artisans
    • 5. merchants (bc they produced nothing on their own)
    • Due to confucian ideals: had more social value than ppl who sold things.
  44. bushido
    • way of the warrior knight
    • 1. frugality 
    • 2. loyality
    • 3. martial arts mastery
    • 5. self sacrifice
    • 4.honor until depth
    • 7 virtues:
    • 1. rectitude
    • 2. courage
    • 3. benevolence
    • 4. honor 
    • 5. loyalty
    • 6. respect
    • 7. honesty
    • associated virtues : filiel piety:
    • 18th centu
  45. 18th century
    • 1. feudalism gone, flavor remains
    • 2.
  46. us occupied japan in WWII
    • 1. reformed culture and govt to democratic ideology
    • 2. person be judged by individuality
    • 3. japanese films censored feudalism
    • 4. treatment of 2nd class women though went down since that was american culture
    • 5. americans not aware of trauma they inflicted , such a change for japanese citiznes
    • 6.
  47. Meija era & Tasho Era Japanese Cinema 1896-1916
    • 1. BENSHI: live narrators
    • a. translated foreign films, us and european films didnt bother to translate due to small market originally
    • 2. no female actors 
    • 3. men specialized as "oyamas" 
    • 4. worked well with heavy make up
  48. censorship in 1911 Japan
    1. crime, adultery, cruelty, love stories that had obscenities, anything that might mislead children or corruption
  49. sengoku
    • 1. highly political
    • 2. Ronin: warrior who lost his master
    • a. honest lord is framed
    • b. his 47 samurai prove his innocence and then commit suicide
  50. Golden age of japanese film
    • 1. 1926-1945
    • 2. feudalism of trad. japan
    • 3. ideals of family, responsible of individual to put other desires in front of others
    • 4.  " A story of floating weeds" - yasujiro ozu
    • 5. small japanese theater. thinks a man is his uncle but in reality is his father, they spend as much time , mistress is jealous
    • b. used :
    • i. subtle way he composed his shots , shading , black vs. white
    • ii. juxtaposition: between stasis and motion
    • iii. little we can do against destiny. compatible w/feudalism
    • iv. but quiet resistance . narrow window for change
    • c. Gold story: best story out of world
    • i. aburptly breaking to scene of stoic stuff
    • ii. pillow shots. breaks up story line, to suggest another plane of reality.
  51. Kurosawa
    • hybrid between US and japan tradition
    • b. ikuru
    • c. samurai heritage
    • d. brought new intl respect for japanese cinema
    • e. has samurai heritage, his father an army officer, kept spirit.
    • f. wife was housewife but abided by bushido.
    • g. encouraged perfectionism
    • h. passionate student of world literature: Doestevsky and John Ford, shakespeare
  52. mentor system
    • actors, directors, etc. would audition ppl with master craftsmen who would groom them for
    • CON: not individualistic
  53. kurosawa films inspired:
    • 1. the magnificent 7: john sturges 1960
    • 2. martin rit: 1964
    • 3. a fistful of dollars
    • 4. "chambara" swordplay films
    • a. bonnie and clyde: similar multi camera, swordplay
    • b. possibly star wars influenced:borrowed character types, the jedi knight
  54. Kurosawa found inspiration for his cinematic rhythms in traditional
    Japanese Noh drama which juxtaposes...
    • a. ..moments of utter stillness with ones of complete agitation
    • b. deep human and complete insight for his characters
    • i. shows how there is no complete villain
    • c. by, for ,and about men
  55. new wave japanese (1950s-1970s)
    • 1. overturned ancient ideals
    • 2. frustrated against americans
    • 3. grew out of student political movements
    • 4. scorned obsolete ideals of harmony
    • a. saw history series of random meaningless events
  56. Japanese cinema began its life with a strong sense of ____, and pride in
    its customs and social structures, even if had questions about their
    national culture
Card Set
WLC 278
Dr. Stacey Feve_webe