Cells part 2

  1. primary lysosomes
    • originate from the golgi apparatus
    • contain digestive enzymes - macromolecules are hydrolyzed into monomers

    (page 26 on slide)
  2. Food enter the cell by __
    phagocytosis - a phagosome is formed
  3. Phagosomes
    fuse with primary lysosomes to form secondary lysosomes

    (page 28 on slide)
  4. Enzymes in the secondary lysosome __
    hydrolyze the food molecules
  5. Lysosomes digest cell materials. This is called __

    Cell components are frequently destroyed and replaced by new ones.
  6. Cells that require a lot of energy have a lot of __
  7. In the mitochondria, __
    energy in fuel molecules is transformed to the bonds of energy - rich ATP: cellular respiration
  8. The inner membrane of a mitochondria folds inward to form __ This creates __
    cristae; a large surface area for proteins involved in cellular respiration reactions

    (page 31 on slide)
  9. The mitochondrial matrix contains __
    • enzymes
    • DNA
    • ribosomes

    (page 31 on slide)
  10. The space between the inner and outer membrane of a mitochondria is called the __
    intermembrane space

    (page 32 on slide)
  11. chloroplasts
    site of photosynthesis - light energy is converted to the energy of chemical bonds

    have a double membrane
  12. __ are stacks of __ - made of circular compartments of the inner membrane of a chloroplast
    Grana; thylakoids

    (page 35 on slide)
  13. Thylakoids contain __
    chlorophyll & other pigments that harvest light energy for photosynthesis
  14. Stroma
    • fluid in which grana are suspended
    • contains DNA & ribosomes
    • (plant version of mitochondria matrix)

    (page 35 on slide)
  15. How did eukaryotic cells originate?
    • Some organelles may have arose by symbiosis "living together"
    • endosymbiosis theory: Mitochondria & plastids arose when one cell engulfed another cell

    (page 36 on slide)
  16. functions of the cytoskeleton
    • holds organelles in position or moves them
    • cytoplasmic streaming
    • changes the shape of the cell (critical for neurons: development, injury, learning, memory)
    • interacts with extracellular structures to stabilize the cells
  17. 3 components of cytoskeleton
    • microfilaments
    • intermediate filaments
    • microtubules

    (page 39 on slide)
  18. microfilaments
    • help a cell or parts of a cell to move
    • determine cell shape
    • made from the protein actin (also called actin filaments)
    • In some cells, forms a meshwork just inside the cell membrane, which provides structure (ex. microvilli)

    (page 40 on slide)
  19. Actin has + and - ends and __ to form __
    polymerizes; long helical chains (reversible)

    (page 40 on slide)
  20. intermediate filaments
    • tough, ropelike protein assemblages
    • anchor cell structures in place
    • resist tension
    • axon growth

    (page 42 on slide)
  21. microtubules
    • form rigid internal skeleton in some cells
    • made from the protein tubulin - a dimer
    • have + and - ends
    • can change length rapidly by adding pr losing dimers (polymerization & de-polymerization)
  22. Cilia & flagella use __ to power motion.
Card Set
Cells part 2
Week 1, Ch. 5