10 Stem Cells

  1. Somatic cell
    cell of the body other than egg or sperm
  2. Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT)
    the transfer of a cell nucleus from a somatic cell into an egg from which the nucleus has been removed
  3. Stem Cells
    • cells that have the ability to divide for indefinite periods, to self-renew, & to give rise to specialized cells
    • are now being used in many clinical trial
    • when a stem cell divides into 2 cells, it produces 1 identical cell & 1 cell that will go on to be specialized (committed cell)
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  4. What are 3 sources of stem cells?
    • 1. embryonic stem (ES) cells from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst!
    • 2. fetal umbilical cord blood*
    • 3. adult tissues, including induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells
  5. Totipotent/Omnipotent
    unlimited capacity to specialize into any & all cell types or tissues
  6. Pluripotent
    capable of giving rise to most cells & tissues of an organism
  7. Multipotent
    capable of giving rise to several cell types, a subset of the 300 cell types in the body
  8. Progenitor Cells
    cells that are committed to differentiate; they are not self-renewing
  9. Clone
    an organism, colony, or group of organisms (or a colony of cells) derived from a single organism or cell by asexual reproduction, all having identical genetic constitutions
  10. Reproductive Cloning
    cloning to produce a pregnancy that results in the birth of a baby
  11. Therapeutic Cloning
    cloning to produce embryonic stem cells for treatment of disease, mechanistic studies, or toxicology studies
  12. Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT)
    • how a clone is made
    • 1. isolate a mature, unfertilized egg (secondary oocyte arrested in metaphase II)
    • 2. remove the nucleus
    • 3. replace it with a donor DIPLOID nucleus from some other somatic cell
    • 4. grow the egg into an adult
  13. iPS Cells (Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells)
    • with iPS cells, you can take ANY somatic cell from any tissue or organ you want & transfect it with 4-6 transcription factors that will ‘reprogram’ the genome of the cell to become the equivalent of an embryonic stem cell
    • adult stem cells are restricted to the lineage of the cells they came from (are only multipotent)
    • issue: very inefficient - can’t realistically grow tissues
    • also in animal studies cancer is widely observed
Card Set
10 Stem Cells
Cell Biology Exam 2