Biology Test 1

  1. What are the 5 characteristics of life?
    • Cellular organization
    • Energy utilization
    • Homeostasis
    • Growth, development, reproduction
    • Heredity
  2. What are the cellular levels of hierarchical organization?
    • Atoms
    • Molecule
    • Macromolecule
    • organelle
    • cell
  3. What are the organismal levels of hierarchical organization?
    • Tissue
    • Organ
    • Organ System
    • Organism
  4. What are the populational levels of hierarchical organization?
    • Population
    • Species
    • Community
    • Ecosystem
    • Biosphere
  5. Emergent properties
    Result from the way in which components interact, and often cannot be guessed just by looking at the parts themselves. ie-the cells that make up a body, metabolism, consciousness
  6. Inductive reasoning
    Uses specific observations to construct general scientific principles
  7. Homologous Structures
    Same evolutionary origin, but they now differ in structure and function
  8. Analogous Structures
    Similar function but different evolutionary origins (wings of birds and butterflies)
  9. Phylogenetic Tree
    Pattern of genetic descent or evolutionary history of a gene.
  10. Cell Theory
    All living organisms consist of cells
  11. Prokaryotes
    • Lack a nucleus
    • Cell Wall and plasma membrane
    • No membrane-bound organelles
    • Contain ribosomes
    • Bacteria and Archaea
    • Many use flagella
  12. Difference between bacteria and archaea
    Archaea lack the peptidoglycan found in the cell walls of bacteria
  13. Eukaryotes
    • Have membrane-bound organelles
    • Have nucleus
  14. Transcription
    • Formation of RNA from DNA
    • Occurs in nucleus
    • RNA moves into cytoplasm
  15. Translation
    RNA is translated to form polypetide chains (proteins)
  16. What makes up a nucleotide?
    • Pentose
    • phosphate
    • Organic nitrogenous base
  17. Entropy
    Disorder in the universe or random molecular motion
  18. Enthalpy
    Total energy in a molecule's chemical bonds
  19. Endergonic reaction
    Reaction that requires an input of energy
  20. Exergonic reaction
    Reaction that has a release of energy or heat
  21. Polymorphic
    More than one allele at frequencies significantly greater than would occur due to mutation alone.
  22. Industrial melanism
    Phenomenon in which darker individuals come to predominate over lighter ones
  23. Which gene, located on chromosome 16 in mammals, determines hair color?
  24. Vestigial structures
    Anatomical structures that have no apparent function, but resemble structures their ancestors possessed.
  25. Convergent evolution
    When phenotypes converge between two groups because of parallel evolutionary adaptations in similar environments. ie-similar body shape in marine species
  26. Endemic species
    Species found in one place and one place only
  27. Law of superposition
    The deeper something is, the older it is, the higher the younger
  28. Developmental homology
    Common developmental history between species that acts as evidence of a common ancestor. ie- structures present in an embryo that develop into other structures
  29. What causes evolution?
    • VISTA
    • Variation
    • Inheritance
    • Selection
    • Time
    • Adaptation
  30. Proximate explanation
    How does it occur?
  31. Ultimate explanation
    Why does it occur?
  32. Taxonomic Hierarchy
    • Domain
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  33. Monophyletic Group
    Consists of the most recent common ancestor and all of its descendants
  34. Paraphyletic Group
    Consists of the most recent common ancestor and some of its descendants
  35. Polyphyletic Group
    Does not contain the most recent common ancestor, ie- birds and bats
  36. Phylogenetic species concept
    Propose that the term species should be applied to groups of populations that have been evolving independently of other groups of populations.
  37. Three basic shapes of bacteria
    • Rod/Bacillus
    • Spherical/Coccus
    • Spiral/spirillum
  38. Gram Positive Bacteria
    • Thicker peptidoglycan wall
    • Stain purple in color
  39. Gram Negative Bacteria
    • Less peptidoglycan¬†
    • Stain dark pink
    • Lipopolysaccharide outer membrane
  40. Why are viruses not considered living organisms?
    They lack many of the features associated with life, including cellular structure, and independent metabolism or replication
  41. Hyphae
    Continuous or branching tubes filled with cytoplasm and multiple nuclei which compose most of the body of a fungus
  42. Mycelium
    Mass of connected hyphae
  43. Monokaryotic
    Contains one nucleus
  44. Dikaryotic
    Contains two nuclei
  45. How do fungi reproduce?
    • Sexually and asexually
    • Spores
    • Zygosporangium
    • Asci
    • Basidia
  46. 4 Major Phyla of Fungi
    • Chytridiomycota
    • Zygomycota
    • Ascomycota
    • Basidiomycota
  47. Plasmogamy
    When two haploid cells fuse their cytoplasms to mate and become dikaryotic in fungal reproduction
  48. Karyogamy
    When nuclei fuse and become diploid after plasmogamy in fungal reproduction
  49. Deuterostomes
    The mouth of the adult animal does not develop from the blastopore. The blastospore develops into the anus
  50. Determinate Development
    The type of tissue each embryonic cell will form in the adult is determined early in many lineages even before cleavage begins.
  51. Indeterminate Development
    Two identical daughter cells can develop into separate complete organisms because the molecules that signal the embryonic cells to develop differently are not segregated into different cells until later in the embryo's development
  52. 2 Different Types of Biomes
    • Biotic: population, community
    • Abiotic: temperature, soil, water, sunlight, wind, energy, base materials
  53. Random spacing
    Occurs when individuals of a population do not interact strongly with one another.
  54. Uniform Spacing
    • Competition for resources
    • Results from behavioral interactions such as defending territory
  55. Clumped spacing
    • Response to uneven distribution of resources in their immediate environment
    • Social interactions such as herds, prides, and flocks
  56. Source-sink metapopulations
    Populations in better areas continually send out dispersers that bolster the population in the poorer habitats
  57. Cohort
    Group of individuals of the same age
  58. Fecundity
    Number of offspring produced in a standard time
  59. 3 Types of Life Cycles
    • Type 1: live longer, more parental care
    • Type 2: Individuals are equally likely to die at any age
    • Type 3: produce many offspring with no parental care, many die at first but have low mortality rate after established
  60. Cost of reproduction
    Reduction of future reproduction potential resulting from current reproductive efforts
  61. Semelparity
    One large reproductive event and then death
  62. Iteroparity
    Produce offspring several times over many seasons.
  63. Equation for growth potential
  64. 'r' (intrinsic growth rate)=?
    r= birth rate-death rate
  65. When N=K then...
  66. Density Dependent Factors
    Factors that are related to population size. ie-reproduction, mortality from predation. As population size increases, reproductive rates decrease or mortality increases
  67. Density Independent Factors
    Unrelated to population size, ie-environmental factors
  68. r-Selected species
    • Early reproductive age
    • Short life span
    • Short maturation time
    • High mortality rate
    • Many offspring
    • Low number of reproductions per lifetime
    • No parental care
    • Small offspring
  69. K-selected species
    • Late reproductive age
    • Long life span
    • Long maturation time
    • Usually low mortality rate
    • Few offspring
    • Many reproductions per lifetime
    • Extensive parental care
    • Large offspring
  70. Fundamental niche
    The entire niche that a species is capable of using, based on its physiological tolerance limits and resource needs, without competition
  71. Realized niche
    The actual set of environmental conditions, including the presence of competion
  72. Competitive exclusion
    If two species are competing for a limited resource, the species that uses the resource more efficiently will eventually eliminate the other locally
  73. Resource partitioning
    When different species subdivide a niche to avoid competing for resources
  74. Batesian mimicry
    a harmless species mimics a harmful one
  75. Mullerian mimicry
    Two unpalatable species mimic each other (bees and wasps)
  76. Parasitism
    • (+/-)
    • One species benefits while the other is harmed
  77. Mutualism
    • (+/+)
    • Obligate: one species cannot survive without the other
    • Facultative: species greatly benefit but do not require each other
  78. Commensalism
    • (0/0)
    • no benefit or detriment from coexistance
  79. Ecological Succession
    Over time, one community is replaced by another
  80. Stages of ecological succession
    • Pioneer (1 species)
    • Consolidation (new species introduced, low competition)
    • Subclimax (high competition, limited resources)
    • Climax (1 species lost, cycle repeats)
  81. 5 Trophic Levels
    • 1- Primary producer
    • 2- Herbivores
    • 3- Primary carnivores
    • 4- Secondary carnivores
    • 5- Detritivores (consume dead matter)
  82. Latitude at which air moves towards the poles and there is limited sunlight
    60 degrees
  83. Latitude at which cool, dry air descends back to Earth and moderate exposure to sunlight
    30 degrees
  84. Latitude at which radiation cases warm, moist air to rise, direct exposure to sunlight
  85. Aposematic coloration
    Warning coloration used in poisonous species
  86. Transcriptomes
    A snap shot of messenger RNA, shows how genes are expressed under certain stimuli
  87. Eutrophic
    High nutrients, low water level, prone to abundance of algae
  88. Oligotrophic
    Low nutrients, high water level
  89. Facilitation
    One species paves the way for another
  90. Inhibition
    Species actively compete
  91. Bottom-Up Productivity
    • Abundance of organisms at each level determined by rate of food production for them to eat
    • As resources go up, producers and consumers go up
  92. Top-down productivity
    • Carnivores depress herbivore populations
    • As carnivores go up, everything else goes down
  93. Gross Primary Production (GPP)
    Total primary production
  94. Net Primary Production (NPP)
    • GPP minus energy used by primary producers for respiration
    • Only NPP is available to consumers
    • Productivity Relative to Biomass: NPP/biomass
  95. Ecosystem Energy Flow
    • 1,000,000 J of sunlight
    • 10,000 J allotted to primary producers
    • 1,000 J allotted to primary consumers
    • 100 J allotted to secondary consumers
    • 10 J allotted to tertiary consumers
Card Set
Biology Test 1
Test 1 Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 40, 38, 6, 39