Aquatic Ecology Final

  1. Protozoan
    SMALL- 1 - 300 micrometers

    • Ciliated: paramecium
    • use cytosome to eat via phagocytosis

    • Flagellated: paranema and heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF)- smallest
    • use flagella to grab food

    Feed on algal food particles

    Reproduce via mytotic cell division - asexual reproduction
  2. Ciliate
    Ciliated protozoan: parameciumuse cytosome to eat via phagocytosis
  3. Flagellate
    • Flagellated Protozoan: paranema and heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF)- smallest
    • Use flagella to grab food
  4. HNF
    Heterotrophic nanoflagellates- smallest zoop
  5. Rotifer
    second smallest zoop

    common rotifers: keratella, kellicotta, conochylus (colonial), asplanchna (predator)

    mostly sessile (attached to something)

    basic rotifer has a head (corona), neck, body, and foot. mouth-like structure = mastax

    Trophus = hard structure for chewing multiple in mastax

    mostly omnivorous: eating phytoplankton, bacteria, detritus, and ciliates

    • Reproduce asexually via parthenogenesis (virgin birth)
    • positive=no need for males sitting around not having babies
    • negative=poor genetic variability

    • Reproduce sexually via haploid eggs if necessary
    • colder temperatures and crowding in winter=sexual

  6. Cladoceran
    Bigger than rotifers same size as copepods

    • Daphnia ketrocurva= helmeted
    • Leptodora-lacks carapace-predator that eats daphnia
    • Polyphemus-fishhook waterflea, spiny waterflea (invasive and predatory in great lakes)
    • Bosmina

    Locomotion: antennae

    Feeding: filter feeders- use mandible and ventral groove

    Reject food with post abdominal claw

    Raptorial- animal that grab prey- spiny/fishhook waterflea and leptodora
  7. Copepod
    Same size as cladoceran (bigger than rotifers, bigger than protozoans)

    cyclopoid and calanoid

    • Locomotion:
    • Cyclopoids move legs and push antennae
    • Calanoids spin antennae

    • feeding: pick out food that smell good HIGH SELECTIVITY
    • Cyclopoids primarily herbivorous
    • Calanoids are raptorial and predatory


    • Egg -->Nauplis-->Copepodite-->adult --|
    • ^---------<------------<---------------<------------v

    1:1 sex ration- only sexual reproduction

    generations of 20-30 days up to 3 years (dependent upon environmental conditions)
  8. Copepodite
    stage of copepod development between nauplis and adult
  9. Nauplis
    stage of copepod development between egg and copepodite
  10. Parthenogenesis
    Virgin birth- asexual reproduction

    female rotifers --mitosis--> eggs --developmental--process--> adults
  11. Ephippium
    • A saddle-shaped cavity to contain the winter eggs, situated on the back of Cladocera.
  12. Numerical Response
    Ability to increase population size in response to an increase in food supply:

    • Best: protozoans then rotifers then cladoceran
    • worse: copepods

    rotifers- smaller, simpler and slightly fasters than cladocerans
  13. Corona
    Head of rotifers
  14. Mastax
    Rotifer mouth-like structure
  15. Trophi
    head structures for chewing multiple things in mastax found in rotifers
  16. carapace
    a dorsal (upper) section of the exoskeleton or shell found in daphnia/cladocerans
  17. Biological Magnification
    concentration of substances as they move up a food chain (many are lipid aka soluble) ex. pesticides like ddt, and mercury
  18. Trophic Level
    The feeding position in a food chain such as primary producers, herbivore, primary carnivore, etc. Green plants form the first trophic level, the producers. Herbivores form the second trophic level, while carnivores form the third and even the fourth trophic levels.
  19. Phagocytosis
    The engulfing and ingestion of bacteria or other foreign bodies by phagocytes. How ciliated flagellates eat, (use cytosome).
  20. Filter feeder
    how cladocerans eat: filter water through using mandibular bolus and ventral groove
  21. raptorial
    Subsisting by seizing prey; predatory.

    Leptodora cladoceran, and calanoid copepod
  22. microbial loop
    Term coined to describe a trophic pathway in aquatic environments wheredissolved organic carbon (DOC) is reintroduced to the food web through the incorporation into bacteria. Bacteria are consumed mostly by protists such as flagellates and ciliates. These protists, in turn, are consumed by larger aquatic organisms (for example small crustaceans like copepods). OVERALL IMPORTANT FOR NUTRIENT CYCLING, NOT ENERGY.

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  23. Allochthonous
    generated outside the system
  24. autochthonous
    generated inside the system
  25. Microbial Loop (Lamperts)
    Detritus can be generated outside the system

    • v---<------DETRITUS--<--^-------------<--------^
    • | ^^
    • Bacteria---------->Phytoplankton-------->zoops
    • | ^ ^
    • v---------->HNFs------------^----------------->ciliates

    Mostly an energy sink
  26. kairomone
    chemical substance produced and released by a living organism that benefits the receiver and disadvantages the donor.
  27. size selective predation
    predators feed on prey based on size
  28. size-efficiency hypothesis
    why large zoops exist in absence of _____

    • zoops compete for food
    • larger zoops are better competitors
    • larger zoops can eat more food
    • presence of _____ predominate
  29. invertebrate planktivore
  30. vertebrate planktivore
    non-bugs, different predator avoidance strategies employed
  31. piscivore
    a carnivorous animal which lives on eating fish
  32. littoral avoidance
    retreating to shore, eg daphnia going into weeds
  33. diel vertical migration
    predator avoidance strategy: in deeper depths at daytime, and shallower depths at night time- size makes a difference, and no fish then no migration
  34. cyclomorphosis
    cyclomorphosis Seasonal change in body shape found in rotifers (phylumRotifera), and in cladoceran Crustacea (phylum Arthropoda). In cladocerans, e.g. Daphnia species, the changes in shape involve the head, which is rounded from midsummer to spring and then progressively becomes helmet-shaped from spring to summer, reverting to the rounded shape by midsummer. The process is poorly understood and may be the result of genetic factors interacting with external conditions, e.g. temperature or day length, or, as in rotifers, the result of internal factors alone.
  35. larva
    • stage of fish development after egg, equivalent to the word fry, identified by large yolk sac attached
    • egg-->larva/fry-->juvenile/fingerling--->adult
  36. fry
    • stage of fish development after egg, equivalent to the word larva, identified by large yolk sac attached
    • egg-->larva/fry-->juvenile/fingerling--->adult
  37. fingerling
    stage of fish development after larva/fry, equivalent to the word juvenile,resemble adults

  38. type III survivorship curve
    fish and coral exhibit this type of survivorship curve,

    null hypothesis = probability of death is same no matter what age

    probability great at young age (egg), then gets better, then die like a curved L
  39. catadromous
    spawn in large body of water and live in stream example is eel
  40. anadromous
    born upstream and live in another body of water (ex. salmon and sea lamprey)
  41. water quality
  42. cultural eutrophication
  43. top-down effects
  44. bottom-up effects
  45. internal loading
  46. external loading
  47. dredging
  48. circulation
  49. hypolimnetic aeration
  50. alum
  51. rotenone
  52. River channel
  53. River Banks
  54. riparian zone
  55. floodplain
  56. stream order
  57. headwaters
  58. middle reach
  59. lower reach
  60. periphyton
  61. CPOM
  62. FPOM
  63. DOM
  64. benthic macroinvertebrate
  65. shredder
  66. collector
  67. filterer
  68. gatherer
  69. grazer/scraper
  70. River Continuum Concept RCC
  71. Flood-pulse model
Card Set
Aquatic Ecology Final