Psych Methods cards

  1. the belief that accurate knowledge can be acquired through observation
  2. a procedure for finding truth by using empirical evidence
    scientific method
  3. a hypothetical explanation of a natural phenomenon
  4. a falsifiable prediction made by a theory
  5. a set of rules and techniques for observation
    empirical method
  6. a description of a property in concrete, measurable terms
    operational definition
  7. anything that can detect the condition to which an operational definition refers
  8. the goodness with which a concrete event defines a property
  9. the tendency for an instrument to produce the same measurement whenever it is used to measure the same thing
  10. an instrument's ability to detect small magnitudes of the property
  11. those aspects of an observational setting that cause people to behave as they think someone else wants to expect
    demand characteristics
  12. a technique for gathering scientific information by unobtrusively observing people in their natural environments
    naturalistic observation
  13. an observation whose true purpose is hidden form both the observer and the person being observed
  14. a property whose value can vary across individuals or over time
  15. two variables are said to be correlated when variations in the value of one variable are synchronized with variations in the value of the other
  16. a correlation observed in the world around us
    natural correlations
  17. two variables are correlated only because watch is casually related to a third variable
    third-variable correlation
  18. the fact that a causal relationship between two variables cannot be inferred from the naturally occuring correlation between them because of the ever-present possibility of third-variable correlation
    third-variable program
  19. a technique for establishing the causal relationship between variables
  20. changing a variable in order to determine its casual power
  21. that variable that is manipulated in an experiment
    independent variable
  22. the group of people who are exposed to a particular manipulation, as compared to the control group, in an experiment
    control group
  23. the variable that is measured in the study
    dependent variable
  24. a problem that occurs when anything about a person determines whether he or she will be included in the experimental or control group
  25. a procedure that lets chance assign people to the experimental or control group
    random assignment
  26. An attribute of an experiment that allows it to establish causal relationships
    internal validity
  27. an attribute of an experiment in which variables have been defined in a normal, typical, or realistic way
    external validity
  28. a complete collection of participants who might possibly be measured
  29. a partial collection of people drawn from a population
  30. a procedure for gathering scientific information by studying a single individual
    case method
  31. a technique for choosing participants that ensures that every member of a population has an equal chance of being included in the sample
    random sampling
  32. a verbal description of the true nature and purpose of a study
  33. Goal of psychological research and practice
    description, explanation, prediction. control
  34. How do we begin to understand brain and behavior
    Indentify the problem, collect information, draw conclusions, revise theory
  35. Where do we get our information
  36. what is a sample
    subset of a population
  37. What are the types of samples
    representative, random, convenience
  38. How do we get our information
  39. types of observations
    naturalistic, survey, case study
  40. Chat is the correlation coefficient and what is the range
    (-1 to 1)
  41. Goal of correlational research
    identify connections
  42. what is a quasi-experimental design
    using pre-existing groups, however you still cant make a causal statement
  43. what is the goal of an experiment
    establish a causal connection
  44. what does manipulation of variables show
    cause and effect
  45. what the independent variable
    variable being manipulated
  46. dependent variable
    variable being measured
  47. single blind procedure
    keep group or experimenter unaware of true purpose of the study
  48. double-blind procedure
    keep group and experimenter unaware of true purpose
  49. what is replication
    performing studies previously done
  50. If random assignment is used what can you assume
    the manipulation caused the conclusion
  51. what is descriptive statistics
    summarizes or describes our data
  52. what are measures of central tendency
    typical score in your data set. Mean, mode, median
  53. what is the measures of variablity
    how are the scores similar or different from that value (standard deviation)
  54. What is Inferential Statistics
    What is the likelihood that the observed difference are simply the result of chance
  55. what is demand characteristics
    experimenter leads subjects to behave differently
  56. Hawthorne Effect
    the act of trying to study something that changes behavior because they know they're being observed
  57. What is Selective Attrition
    people who started out in the study are different at the end of the study
  58. what confounding variables
    random variables
Card Set
Psych Methods cards