Biological Molecules part 1

  1. levels of organization of life (don't have to memorize this. Just have an idea of it.)
    (page 2 on slide)

    • atoms
    • molecule
    • cell
    • tissue
    • organ
    • body system
    • organism
    • population
    • community
    • ecosystem
  2. characteristics of the nervous system
    • responds to external & internal environment
    • fast-acting
    • deals with learning & memory
    • language & communication
  3. functions of the muscular system
    • locomotion
    • posture
    • heat production
    • output of the nervous system
  4. function of endocrine system
    Glands secrete hormones that regulate:

    • growth
    • reproduction
    • digestion
    • water retention

    (controlled by hypothalamus)
  5. functions of the cardiovascular system
    • Blood vessels transport blood (carries oxygen, nutrients, & wastes)
    • Heart pumps blood
  6. functions of the respiratory system
    • oxygenates blood
    • removes carbon dioxide
    • gas exchange through walls of air sacs in the lungs
  7. functions of the lymphatic/immune system
    • picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels
    • houses white blood cells (lymphocytes)
    • mounts attacks against foreign substances in the body
  8. functions of the digestive system
    • digestion of food for absorption in the small intestines
    • eliminate indigestible foodstuffs as feces
  9. functions of the urinary system
    • elimination of nitrogenous wastes
    • regulation of water, electrolytes, & acid-base balancce
  10. function of the reproductive system
    production of sex hormones, sperm/eggs
  11. The atomic number is the number of __

    example: 2 for He
  12. The atomic mass is the number of __
    protons + neutrons

    example: 4.003 for He
  13. Isotopes show the same element with a different number of __

    example: Carbon-12 (6 protons, 6 neutrons), Carbon-14 (6 protons, 8 neutrons)

    (page 15 & 16 on slide)
  14. Potassium has the atomic number 19. How many electrons does it need to fill up the outer shell?
    • filled shells has 18 electrons: 2, 8, 8
    • outer shell has 1 electron, therefore it needs 7 electrons to fill the outer shell

    (photo on page 17 on slide)
  15. What determines the type of chemical bond? (covalent, ionic, hydrogen, van der waal)
    the # if electrons in the outer shell
  16. covalent bond
    shares electrons

    (page 19 & 20 on slide)
  17. Carbon can form a number of __ bonds
  18. Nonpolar covalent bond & examples
    equal share of bonds, no charge

    examples: H2 forms 2 covalent bonds, CH4 forms 4 covalent bonds
  19. Polar covalent bond & example
    shared bond with charge

    example: H2O (O hogs electrons, so H is slightly positive & O is slightly negative)

    (page 22 on slide)
  20. ionic bonds
    bond in which one atom gives up electrons and the other atom accepts electrons

    example: NaCl (Na atom gives up an electron to Cl, creating a bond to fill up outer shells)

    (page 24 on slide)
  21. __ electronegative atoms are more likely to give up electrons & __ electronegative atoms are more likely to take up electrons (so outer shells are filled)
    Less; more

    example: K has a low electronegativity so it gives up an electron and acquires a +1 charge. O has a high electronegativity so it takes electrons and acquires a -2 charge.

    (page 23 on slide)
  22. Hydrogen bonds
    bonds with H+

    example: an H2O molecule binds to another H2O molecule (H binds to O)

    (page 27 on slide)
  23. Shapes of proteins are determined by __ bonds.

    H-bonds are weak. However, large numbers of weak bonds are strong enough to influence shapes of DNA & proteins

    (page 28 on slide)
  24. Van der Waal forces
    • weakest bonds
    • noncovalent interactions between nonpolar bonds
    • forms the basis of why nonpolar molecules stick together
    • hydrophobic
  25. __ molecules tend to be hydrophylic
  26. __ molecules tend to be hydrophobic
  27. the basis for life
  28. unique structure of water
    • polar molecule
    • forms hydrogen bonds
    • tetrahedral shape

    (page 33 on slide)
  29. water properties
    • temperature moderation (stability in temp)
    • solvent of life
    • cohesive & surface tension
    • density of the solid state (ice is less dense than liquid form)
  30. H2O is more dense in liquid form because __
    Atoms are closer together than compared to ice.

    (page 35 on slide)
  31. Water helps moderate climate because of its high __
    heat capacity

    (Water has high specific heat.)
Card Set
Biological Molecules part 1
Week 1: Ch. 2, 3