1. Mesopotamia
    • "land between the rivers"- Tigris and Euphrates
    • little rain=> irrigation system (6000 B.C.E)
  2. Food supplies increase
    • Population boom
    • migrants come (esp. Semites)
    • Sumer becomes population center
  3. First cities emerge (4000 B.C.E)
    • 3200-3250=> evolve into city states
    • gov. sponsor building projects and irrigation
    • constant attacks=> city walls and military development
    • kingship evolves with cooperation with noble families and supporters
  4. Sargon of Akkad (2370-2315)
    • attacks against king of Kish
    • seizes trade routes and natural resources
    • empire weakens and collapses around 2000 B.C.E
  5. Hammurabi (1792-1750)
    • centralizes beauracracy and legalizes taxation
    • capital in Babylon
    • law of retribution and importance in social class
    • attack from Hittites leads to collapse in 1595
  6. Assyrians (1300-612)
    • cities: Assur and Ninevah
    • strong military- chariots, professional military, archers, and iron weapons
    • unpopular rule leads to rebellion
  7. New Babylon Empire (600-550)
    • Nebuchadnezzar (605-562)
    • hanging gardens of Babylon shows wealth and luxury
  8. Economic Specialization and Trade
    • Bronze- weapons and agricultural tools
    • Iron (1000 B.C.E)- weapons and tools, more widely available
    • Wheel (3500 B.C.E)- helps trade, carts carry more items farther
    • Shipbuilding- maritime trade, networks increase
  9. Social Classes
    • Cities: more opportunities for wealth
    • Kings (heriditary) and nobles (royal family and supporters) highest
    • Priests/ Priestesses- in charge of temple communities, large income and staff
    • Free commoners (peasants) and dependent clients (no property)- pay taxes and labor on building projects
    • Slaves (criminals, debted servitude, POWs)- usually domestic servants
  10. Patriarchy
    • Hammurabi's code- men head of household
    • Women's power declined after 2000 B.C.E and started wearing veils 1500 B.C.E
  11. Written Cultural Traditions
    • Cuneiform- wedge shaped rod pressed into wax tablet and baked, becomes standard, used in taxes and laws
    • Education: vocational to be scribe/ government official
    • Literature: astronomy, mathematics, abstract (religious and epics)
  12. Hebrews, Israelites, and Jews
    • Hebrews: early on are pastoral nomads, settle in cities, lead to Palestine by Abraham (1850), borrow law of retribution and Mesopotamian gods
    • Israelites: Hebrews that migrated to Egypt in 18th cent. B.C.E, twelve tribes became Israelites, Jerusalem- capital, Mesopotamin style monarch
    • Jews: Moses, Ten Commandments, Torah, Assyrians deport Jews, they return to Judea and become very strong identity group, religion increases
  13. Phoenecians (3000 B.C.E)
    • first settlers- 3000 B.C.E, develop into city states
    • little agriculture, live on trade and communications networks
    • influence Mesopotamian culture, sea trade most important- get raw materials
    • develop early alphabetical script (1500 B.C.E)
  14. Indo-European origins
    • Linguists discover similarities between languages=> must be related
    • Originate in steppes of central Asia, pastoral people (4500-2500 B.C.E)
    • Domesticate horses=> learn to ride=> horses+carts=> chariots
  15. Indo-European Expansion and Effects
    • Indo-European society breaks up 3000 B.C.E=> migrate
    • Hittites- Central Anatolia (2000 B.C.E), build powerful kingdoms, conquer Babylonian empire (1595 B.C.E), dissolve (1200 B.C.E), technology- light chariots and iron metallurgy
    • Migrate to Asia, Greece, Britain, Italy, central and western Europe- all pastoral agriculturists, related languages and religion
    • Iran and India- Aryans
Card Set
Chapter 2