Do vitamins themselves contribute energy to the body
Define dietary supplements.
Products that are added to the diet and contain any of the following ingredients: a vitamin, a mineral, an herb, or other botanical, amino acid, a metabolite, a constituent, or an extract
What are the 4 fat soluble vitamins?
Vitamins D, E, A, K
Essential, non-kcaloric, organic nutrient needed in tiny amounts in the diet.
How do vitamins differ from cards, protein, and fats?
How are vitamins involved in energy metabolization?
Assist the enzymes that participate in the release of energy from carbs, fats, and proteins.
Vitamins are______units, they are not _____ together
How are vitamins measured for dietary intake?
In micrograms or milligrams, rather than grams
How vitamins similar to energy-yielding nutrients (carbs, protein, and fats)?
Vital to life
Available in foods
What is the rate and extent to which a nutrient is absorbed and used?
What two factors determine the amount of vitamins available from food?
Quantity by a food
-The efficiency of digestion and time of transit through the GI tract
-The previous nutrient intake and nutrition status
-Other foods consumed at the same time
-Method of food preparation
-Source of the nutrient
Are factors that help to determine . . .
What is the term used for inactive versions of a vitamin (pro-vitamins)?
It is important to count the amount of the _____vitamins and the _____amount
Vitamins can be readily destroyed during ______.
Concerning solubility, what two classes do vitamins fall into?
To prevent enzymatic destruction in foods, it is recommended . . .
Refrigerate most fruits, vegetables, and juices to slow breakdown of vitamins
What are the 2 main water soluble vitamins?
Fat soluble vitamins are absorbed like . . .
Like fats, first into the lymph, and then into the blood
Where are fat soluble vitamins stored?
The liver or fatty tissue
Fat soluble vitamins must travel, how?
Must travel with protein carriers in watery body fluid
Concerning fat soluble vitamins, toxicities are likely from _____ but occur rarely from _____.
Concerning water soluble vitamins, toxicities are ______ but are possible with high does from ______.
When blood concentrations begin to decline, the body can retrieve the vitamins from storage. Thus, a person need not eat a _______ of each fat soluble vitamin each day but need only make sure that, over time, _______ intakes approximate recommended intakes.
A day's allowance
What is vitamin A's plant-derived precursor?
Retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid are three forms of what vitamin?
What are the three forms of vitamin A?
Retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid
A special protein, _____, picks up retinol from the liver, where it is stored, and carries it in the blood.
D) Retinol-binding protein (RBP)
Concerning vitamin A, what supports reproduction and is the major transport and storage form of the vitamin?
Retinoic acid acts as a ______, regulating cell differentiation, growth, and embryonic development.
The cells convert Retinol into what two forms when needed?
Retinal and retinoic acid
Retinal is active in _____.
Vitamin is considerably involved on an array of body functions through its interaction with genes, Hence, factors that influence gene expression also affect . . .
The metabolic activities of the tissue and the health of the body.
What are the two roles of vitamin A (retinal) in vision?
Help maintain a healthy, crystal-clear outer window also known as the cornea.
Participates in light detection at the retina.
What is the layer of light-sensitive nerve cells lining the back of the inside of the eye' consists of rods and cones.
What is the hard transparent membrane covering the outside of the eye?
When vitamin A is lacking, the eye has difficulty adapting to changing . . .
Photosensitive cells of the retina contain pigment molecules called _______.
Rhodopsin is composed of what two molecules?
Ospin bonded to a molecule of retinal.
What is opsin?
The protein portion of the visual pigment molecule.
What is a slow recovery of vision after exposure to flashes of bright light at night; an early symptom of vitamin A deficiency?
Concerning vitamin A, at the genetic level it promotes protein synthesis and differentiation. Cell Differentiation allows . . .
Each type of cell to mature so that it is capable of perform a specific function.
To ensure epithelial cells are kept smooth, surface epithelial cells secrete a smooth, slippery substance (mucus) that coats the tissue and protects them from antigens.
Vitamin A, by its role in what, helps maintain the integrity of the epithelial cells?
Without vitamin A's genetic interaction, the immune system weakens.
True or False
Vitamin A does not participate in sperm development ,as well as promotes a normal fetal growth and development.
T or F
False, it does.
Beta-carotene is an extremely effective ______.
What element triggers the formation of compounds known as free radicals (can start chain reactions in cell membranes)?
________are compounds that protect other compounds from attacks from oxygen.
Concerning antioxidants, if free radials were left uncontrolled, these chain reaction can cause what?
Damage to cell structures
Impairment of cell functions
Beta-carotene has an established recommended intake value.
T or F
False, it does not.
Up to a _____ supply of vitamin A can be stored in the body, _____% in the liver.
Up to a year's supply of vitamin A can be stored in the body, 90% in the liver. Until after stores are depleted, do _______ symptoms begin to appear.
Deficiency symptoms would not begin to appear until after what?
All stores are depleted.
Concerning vitamin A deficiency, when cell differentiation and maturation are impaired, epithelial cells flatten and begin to produce . . .
What is a hard, inflexible protein of hair and nails?
Concerning vitamin A deficiency, the production of keratin ( hard, inflexible protein) affects vision how?
Leads to drying ans hardening of the cornea.
Eventually with the drying out and the hardening of the cornea due to the production keratin, a patient can become . . .
Term for blindness due to vitamin A deficiency.
What is the term for when the cornea drys and becomes hardened?
Xerosis (dry and hardening of the cornea) quickly progresses to _______ (the softening of the cornea)
What is keratomalacia?
The softening of the cornea
Keratomalacia leads to irreversible . . .
What is an accumulation of keratin that makes lumps around each hair follicle?
What type of vitamin A form would one have to consume concentrated amounts in foods derived from animals, fortified foods, or supplements?
Preformed Vitamin A (active form of vitamin A)
What is the active form of vitamin A?
Preformed vitamin A
Beta-carotene; vitamin A's precursor, does not convert vitamin A to its active form fast enough to cause what?
Concerning vitamin A and pregnancy, excessive amounts can cause what?
Teratogenic risk (causing abnormal fetal development and birth defects)
What is the Tolerable Upper Limit for women during pregnacy?
Concerning vitamin A toxicity, what are the tratogenic effects for the developing fetus in pregnant women?
Injury to the spinal cord and other tissue
What is the recommended daily allowance (RDA) for women and men concerning vitamin A?
Men= 900 micrograms
Using the retinol activity equivalent(RAE), 1 microgram of retinol counts as 1 RAE = how many beta-carotene?
12 micrograms of dietary beta-carotene
What are the richest sources for vitamin A?
Fish oil and liver, but milk, cheese, and fortified cereals are also good sources.
Beta-carotene can be found in what types of foods?
Dark green or deep orange vegetables.
Vitamin D can be synthesized in significant quantities with the help of ______?
Vitamin D is also known as what?
What are vitamin D's two major forms?
Vitamin D2 and D3
Vitamin D2 derives primarily from . . .
Vitamin D3 derives primarily from . . .
Animal food in the diet and synthesis from sunlight
Concerning vitamin D's metabolic conversion process, the liver manufactures a vitamin D ______, which migrates to the skin.
Concerning vitamin D's metabolic conversion process, the liver manufactured vitamin A precursor converts to a second precursor with the help of
The sun's ultraviolet rays.
Concerning vitamin D's metabolic conversion process, the second precursor is is altered by what two organs to become active?
Liver and the kidneys
Vitamin D is actually a ______-a compound manufactured by one organ of the body that has effects on another
In many cases, vitamin D suppresses or enhances the activity of genes that regulate cell growth
T or F
What is vitamin D's role in bone health?
Assist in the absorption of calcium and phosphorus, thus helping to maintain blood concentrations of these minerals.
What 3 ways does vitamin D raise blood concentrate of bone minerals?
When diet is sufficient, it enhances their absorption from the GI tract.
When diet is insufficient, it provides the needed minerals from other sources: reabsorption by the kidneys
Mobilization from the bones into the blood.
What are some factors that contribute to vitamin D deficiency?
Breastfeeding without supplements
Lack of sunlight
Not using fortified milk
Vitamin D deficiency disease in children
To prevent rickets and support bone health, the DRI committee recommends that all infants, children, and adolescents consume the recommended _____ micrograms of vitamin D each day
In rickets, the bones fail to _____ normally, causing . . .
Growth retardation and skeletal abnormalities
In adults, the poor mineralization of the bone results in the painful bone disease called?
Any failure to synthesize adequate vitamin D or obtain enough from foods sets the stage for a loss of calcium from the bones, which can result in fractures secondary to . . .
Osteoporosis (reduced bone density)
Literally, porous bones; reduced density of the bones, also known as adult bone loss.
Form stone, especially in the kidneys, where calcium is concentrated in an effort to excrete it.
Concerning vitamin D's toxicity, calcification can do what to blood vessels?
Harden them, thus dangerous for blood pressure
What is the tolerable intake level for vitamin D?
50 micrograms per day
Concerning vitamin D recommendations, the older you get the more or less vitamin D you will need daily?
Where is vitamin D found normally?
Only a few animal foods-notably, eggs, liver, butter, some fatty fish, and fortified milk
Breast milk is low in vitamin D, so vitamin D supplements (____micrograms daily) are recommended for infants who are ______ exclusively and for those who do not receive at least 1000 milliliters of vitamin D-fortified formula per day.
Vitamin E is found in ?
What compound means offspring? It is a general term for several chemically related compounds, one of which has a vitamin E activity.
Vitamin E is especially effective in preventing the oxidation of the ________ fatty acids, but it protects all other _____as well.
Lipids (for example vitamin A)
Vitamin E also offer protection against heart disease by protecting ________ lipo-proteins from oxidation and reducing _____.
What happens to red blood cells when the levels of vitamin E fall blow a certain critical level?
They tend to break open and spill their contents, probably because the PUFA in their membranes oxidize
What is erythrocyte hemolysis?
When red blood cells burst and spill out their contents from a lack of protect from oxidation of their membrane's PUFA provided from vitamin E
What is the condition of having too few red blood cells as a result of erythrocyte hemolysis
Loss of coordination and reflexes with impaired movement , vision, and speech are some of the few symptoms of vitamin E deficiency ?
T or F
Extremely high doses of vitamin E interfere with ______ action of vitamin K and enhances the action of anticoagulant medication, leading to ______.
Vitamin K has long been known for its role in ______.
Vitamin K; in addition to its blood-clotting role, participates in the synthesis of several ________.
Vitamin K is essential for the activation of several of proteins involved in blood-clotting, among them prothrombin, the precursor to ______.
What synthesises vitamin K that the body can absorb?
Bacteria in the intestinal tract
Vitamin K deficiency is rare, but can occur in two circumstances. What are they?
Arise in conditions of fat malabsorption.
Medication; such as antibiotics kill vitamin K-producing bacteria.
Infants are born with _____digestive tract, therefore vitamin K isn't fully established.
For infants with sterile digestive tracts, a ____ dose of vitamin K, usually in water-soluble form, is given at birth to prevent . . .
A Tolerable Upper Intake Level for vitamin K has been established
T or False
False, it has not.
Where do you readily find vitamin K in food?
Green leafy vegetables, members of the cabbage family, and some vegetable oils.