Intro to Nutrition Chpt.8

  1. Do vitamins themselves contribute energy to the body
  2. Define dietary supplements.
    Products that are added to the diet and contain any of the following ingredients: a vitamin, a mineral, an herb, or other botanical, amino acid, a metabolite, a constituent, or an extract
  3. What are the 4 fat soluble vitamins?
    Vitamins D, E, A, K
  4. Define Vitamin.
    Essential, non-kcaloric, organic nutrient needed in tiny amounts in the diet.
  5. How do vitamins differ from cards, protein, and fats?
    • Structure
    • Function
    • Dietary Intake
  6. How are vitamins involved in energy metabolization?
    Assist the enzymes that participate in the release of energy from carbs, fats, and proteins.
  7. Vitamins are______units, they are not _____ together
    • Individual
    • Linked
  8. How are vitamins measured for dietary intake?
    In micrograms or milligrams, rather than grams
  9. How vitamins similar to energy-yielding nutrients (carbs, protein, and fats)?
    • Vital to life
    • Organic
    • Available in foods
  10. What is the rate and extent to which a nutrient is absorbed and used?
  11. What two factors determine the amount of vitamins available from food?
    • Quantity by a food
    • Bio-availability
  12. -The efficiency of digestion and time of transit through the GI tract
    -The previous nutrient intake and nutrition status
    -Other foods consumed at the same time 
    -Method of food preparation
    -Source of the nutrient 
    Are factors that help to determine . . .
  13. What is the term used for inactive versions of a vitamin (pro-vitamins)?
  14. It is important to count the amount of the _____vitamins and the _____amount
    • Actual
    • Potential
  15. Vitamins can be readily destroyed during ______.
  16. Concerning solubility, what two classes do vitamins fall into?
    • Fat soluble
    • Water soluble
  17. To prevent enzymatic destruction in foods, it is recommended . . .
    Refrigerate most fruits, vegetables, and juices to slow breakdown of vitamins
  18. What are the 2 main water soluble vitamins?
    • Vitamin B
    • Vitamin C
  19. Fat soluble vitamins are absorbed like . . .
    Like fats, first into the lymph, and then into the blood
  20. Where are fat soluble vitamins stored?
    The liver or fatty tissue
  21. Fat soluble vitamins must travel, how?
    Must travel with protein carriers in watery body fluid
  22. Concerning fat soluble vitamins, toxicities are likely from _____ but occur rarely from _____.
    • Supplements
    • Foods
  23. Concerning water soluble vitamins, toxicities are ______ but are possible with high does from ______.
    • Unlikely
    • Supplements
  24. When blood concentrations begin to decline, the body can retrieve the vitamins from storage. Thus, a person need not eat a _______ of each fat soluble vitamin each day but need only make sure that, over time, _______ intakes approximate recommended intakes.
    • A day's allowance 
    • Average daily
  25. What is vitamin A's plant-derived precursor?
  26. Retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid are three forms of what vitamin?
    Vitamin A
  27. What are the three forms of vitamin A?
    Retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid
  28. A special protein, _____, picks up retinol from the liver, where it is stored, and carries it in the blood.

    D) Retinol-binding protein (RBP)
  29. Concerning vitamin A, what supports reproduction and is the major transport and storage form of the vitamin?
  30. Retinoic acid acts as a ______, regulating cell differentiation, growth, and embryonic development.
  31. The cells convert Retinol into what two forms when needed?
    Retinal and retinoic acid
  32. Retinal is active in _____.
  33. Vitamin is considerably involved on an array of body functions through its interaction with genes, Hence, factors that influence gene expression also affect . . .
    The metabolic activities of the tissue and the health of the body.
  34. What are the two roles of vitamin A (retinal) in vision?
    • Help maintain a healthy, crystal-clear outer window also known as the cornea.
    • Participates in light detection at the retina.
  35. What is the layer of light-sensitive nerve cells lining the back of the inside of the eye' consists of rods and cones.
  36. What is the hard transparent membrane covering the outside of the eye?
  37. When vitamin A is lacking, the eye has difficulty adapting to changing . . .
    Light levels
  38. Photosensitive cells of the retina contain pigment molecules called _______.
  39. Rhodopsin is composed of what two molecules?
    Ospin bonded to a molecule of retinal.
  40. What is opsin?
    The protein portion of the visual pigment molecule.
  41. What is a slow recovery of vision after exposure to flashes of bright light at night; an early symptom of vitamin A deficiency?
    Night blindness
  42. Concerning vitamin A, at the genetic level it promotes protein synthesis and differentiation. Cell Differentiation allows . . .
    Each type of cell to mature so that it is capable of perform a specific function.
  43. To ensure epithelial cells are kept smooth, surface epithelial cells secrete a smooth, slippery substance (mucus) that coats the tissue and protects them from antigens.

    Vitamin A, by its role in what, helps maintain the integrity of the epithelial cells?
    Cell differentiation
  44. Without vitamin A's genetic interaction, the immune system weakens.

    True or False
  45. Vitamin A does not participate in sperm development ,as well as promotes a normal fetal growth and development.

    T or F
    False, it does.
  46. Beta-carotene is an extremely effective ______.
  47. What element triggers the formation of compounds known as free radicals (can start chain reactions in cell membranes)?
  48. ________are compounds that protect other compounds from attacks from oxygen.
  49. Concerning antioxidants, if free radials were left uncontrolled, these chain reaction can cause what?
    • Damage to cell structures
    • Impairment of cell functions
  50. Beta-carotene has an established recommended intake value.

    T or F
    False, it does not.
  51. Up to a _____ supply of vitamin A can be stored in the body, _____% in the liver.
    • Year's
    • 90
  52. Up to a year's supply of vitamin A can be stored in the body, 90% in the liver. Until after stores are depleted, do _______ symptoms begin to appear.
  53. Deficiency symptoms would not begin to appear until after what?
    All stores are depleted.
  54. Concerning vitamin A deficiency, when cell differentiation and maturation are impaired, epithelial cells flatten and begin to produce . . .
  55. What is a hard, inflexible protein of hair and nails?
  56. Concerning vitamin A deficiency, the production of keratin ( hard, inflexible protein) affects vision how?
    Leads to drying ans hardening of the cornea.
  57. Eventually with the drying out and the hardening of the cornea due to the production keratin, a patient can become . . .
  58. Term for blindness due to vitamin A deficiency.
  59. What is the term for when the cornea drys and becomes hardened?
  60. Xerosis (dry and hardening of the cornea) quickly progresses to _______ (the softening of the cornea)
  61. What is keratomalacia?
    The softening of the cornea
  62. Keratomalacia leads to irreversible . . .
  63. What is an accumulation of keratin that makes lumps around each hair follicle?
  64. What type of vitamin A form would one have to consume concentrated amounts in foods derived from animals, fortified foods, or supplements?
    Preformed Vitamin A (active form of vitamin A)
  65. What is the active form of vitamin A?
    Preformed vitamin A
  66. Beta-carotene; vitamin A's precursor, does not convert vitamin  A to its active form fast enough to cause what?
  67. Concerning vitamin A and pregnancy, excessive amounts can cause what?
    Teratogenic risk (causing abnormal fetal development and birth defects)

    • terato=monster
    • genic=to produce
  68. What is the Tolerable Upper Limit for women during pregnacy?
    3000 micrograms
  69. Concerning vitamin A toxicity, what are the tratogenic effects for the developing fetus in pregnant women?
    Injury to the spinal cord and other tissue
  70. What is the recommended daily allowance (RDA) for women and men concerning vitamin A?
    • Men= 900 micrograms
    • Women=700 micrograms
  71. Using the retinol activity equivalent(RAE), 1 microgram of retinol counts as 1 RAE = how many beta-carotene?
    12 micrograms of dietary beta-carotene
  72. What are the richest sources for vitamin A?
    Fish oil and liver, but milk, cheese, and fortified cereals are also good sources.
  73. Beta-carotene can be found in what types of foods?
    Dark green or deep orange vegetables.
  74. Vitamin D can be synthesized in significant quantities with the help of ______?
  75. Vitamin D is also known as what?
  76. What are vitamin D's two major forms?
    Vitamin D2 and D3
  77. Vitamin D2 derives primarily from . . .
    Plant foods
  78. Vitamin D3 derives primarily from . . .
    Animal food in the diet and synthesis from sunlight
  79. Concerning vitamin D's metabolic conversion process, the liver manufactures a vitamin D ______, which migrates to the skin.
  80. Concerning vitamin D's metabolic conversion process, the liver manufactured vitamin A precursor converts to a second precursor with the help of
    The sun's ultraviolet rays.
  81. Concerning vitamin D's metabolic conversion process, the second precursor is is altered by what two organs to become active?
    Liver and the kidneys
  82. Vitamin D is actually a ______-a compound manufactured by one organ of the body that has effects on another

    C) Hormone
  83. In many cases, vitamin D suppresses or enhances the activity of genes that regulate cell growth 

    T or F
  84. What is vitamin D's role in bone health?
    Assist in the absorption of calcium and phosphorus, thus helping to maintain blood concentrations of these minerals.
  85. What 3 ways does vitamin D raise blood concentrate of bone minerals?
    • When diet is sufficient, it enhances their absorption from the GI tract.
    • When diet is insufficient, it provides the needed minerals from other sources: reabsorption by the kidneys
    • Mobilization from the bones into the blood.
  86. What are some factors that contribute to vitamin D deficiency?
    • Dark skin
    • Breastfeeding without supplements
    • Lack of sunlight
    • Not using fortified milk
  87. Define rickets.
    Vitamin D deficiency disease in children
  88. To prevent rickets and support bone health, the DRI committee recommends that all infants, children, and adolescents consume the recommended _____ micrograms of vitamin D each day
  89. In rickets, the bones fail to _____ normally, causing . . .
    • Calcify 
    • Growth retardation and skeletal abnormalities
  90. In adults, the poor mineralization of the bone results in the painful bone disease called?
  91. Any failure to synthesize adequate vitamin D or obtain enough from foods sets the stage for a loss of calcium from the bones, which can result in fractures secondary to . . .
    Osteoporosis (reduced bone density)
  92. Define osteoporosis.
    Literally, porous bones; reduced density of the bones, also known as adult bone loss.
  93. Concerning vitamin D's toxicity, excessive blood calcium tends to . . .
    • Precipitate in the soft tissue
    • Form stone, especially in the kidneys, where calcium is concentrated in an effort to excrete it.
  94. Concerning vitamin D's toxicity, calcification can do what to blood vessels?
    Harden them, thus dangerous for blood pressure
  95. What is the tolerable intake level for vitamin D?
    50 micrograms per day
  96. Concerning vitamin D recommendations, the older you get the more or less vitamin D you will need daily?
  97. Where is vitamin D found normally?
    Only a few animal foods-notably, eggs, liver, butter, some fatty fish, and fortified milk
  98. Breast milk is low in vitamin D, so vitamin D supplements (____micrograms daily) are recommended for infants who are ______ exclusively and for those who do not receive at least 1000  milliliters of vitamin D-fortified formula per day.
    • 10
    • Breastfed
  99. Vitamin E is found in ?
    Vegetable oils
  100. What compound means offspring? It is a general term for several chemically related compounds, one of which has a vitamin E activity.
  101. Vitamin E is especially effective in preventing the oxidation of the ________ fatty acids, but it protects all other _____as well.
    • Polyunsaturated 
    • Lipids (for example vitamin A)
  102. Vitamin E also offer protection against heart disease by protecting  ________ lipo-proteins from oxidation and reducing _____.
    • Low-density
    • Inflammation
  103. What happens to red blood cells when the levels of vitamin E fall blow a certain critical level?
    They tend to break open and spill their contents, probably because the PUFA in their membranes oxidize
  104. What is erythrocyte hemolysis?
    When red blood cells burst and spill out their contents from a lack of protect from oxidation of their membrane's PUFA provided from vitamin E
  105. What is the condition of having too few red blood cells as a result of erythrocyte hemolysis
    Hemolytic anemia
  106. Loss of coordination and reflexes with impaired movement , vision, and speech are some of the few symptoms of vitamin E deficiency ?

    T or F
  107. Extremely high doses of vitamin E interfere with ______ action of vitamin K and enhances the action of anticoagulant medication, leading to ______.
    • Blood-clotting 
    • Hemorrhage
  108. Vitamin K has long been known for its role in ______.
  109. Vitamin K; in addition to its blood-clotting role, participates in the synthesis of several ________.
    Bone protein
  110. Vitamin K is essential for the activation of several of proteins involved in blood-clotting, among them prothrombin, the precursor to ______.
  111. What synthesises vitamin K that the body can absorb?
    Bacteria in the intestinal tract
  112. Vitamin K deficiency is rare, but can occur in two circumstances. What are they?
    • Arise in conditions of fat malabsorption. 
    • Medication; such as antibiotics kill vitamin K-producing bacteria.
  113. Infants are born with _____digestive tract, therefore vitamin K isn't fully established.
  114. For infants with sterile digestive tracts, a ____ dose of vitamin K, usually in water-soluble form, is given at birth to prevent . . .
    • Single
    • Hemorrhagic disease
  115. A Tolerable Upper Intake Level for vitamin K has been established

    T or False
    False, it has not.
  116. Where do you readily find vitamin K in food?
    Green leafy vegetables, members of the cabbage family, and some vegetable oils.
Card Set
Intro to Nutrition Chpt.8
Chapter 8 Vitamins