The study of the structures of body parts and their relationship to each other.
What is physiology?
The function of the body, in other words, how the body parts work and carry out their life-sustaining activities.
What are the subdivisions of Anatomy?
Gross, or macroscopic.
--Surface(inter structrues relation to overlying skin)
What is Embryology?
A subdivision of developmental anatomy, concerns developmental changes that occur before birth.
What are the essential tools for mastery of Anatomy?
Others are Observation
How are topics established in Physiology?
Consider the operation of specific organ systems
Like renal physiology, neurophysiology, etc.
the body's dynamic and animated workings.
Physiology rests on...
the principles of physics and the chemical reactions that go on within them.
What is the principle of complementarity of structure and function?
A&P are almost inseparable because function always reflects structure.
What are the 6 structural levels of the human body?
What are the tiniest building blocks of matter, and combined what do they form?
Atoms make molecules
Combined molecules make...
Organelles (basic components of microscopic cells)
_____ are the smallest units of living things. Simplest living creatures
What separates cells and their functions to the body?
Shape and size
_____ are groups of similar cells that have a common function.
What are the 4 basic tissue types of the human body?
Epithelium, muscle, connective, and nervous
What is the characteristic role of the epithelium?
Covers the body surface and lines its cavites
What is the characteristic role of muscle tissue?
What is the characteristic role of the connective tissue?
Supports and protects body organs
What is the characteristic role of nervous tissues?
Provides a means of rapid internal communication by transmitting electrical impulses.
What is an organ?
A discrete structure of composed of at least two tissue(4 is common) that perform a specific function for the body.
What is the highest level of organization?
Organism, the human being.
All body cells are interdependent, why?
due to the fact humans are multi-cellular organisms and our vital body functions are parceled out among different organ systems.
What are the body's necessary life functions?
----Reproduction is not necessary to life.
The ultimate goal of all body functions is to maintain life. However, life is extraordinarily fragile and requires several factors.
What are our survival needs?
Appropriate temperature and atmospheric pressure.
What is a broad term used for all chemical reactions that occur in the body cells?
In what way does physiology depend on anatomy?
The operation or function of a structure is promoted or prevented by its anatomy.
Would you be studying anatomy or physiology if you investigate hoe muscles shorten? If you explored the location of the lungs in the body?
Muscle shortening is a topic of physiology.
The location of the lungs is a topic of anatomy.
What level of structural organization is typical of a cytologist's field of study?
What is the correct structural order of the following terms: tissue, organism, organ, cell.
Which organ system includes the bones and cartilage? Which includes the nasal cavity, lungs, and trachea?
What separates living beings from nonliving objects?
Living organisms can maintain their boundaries, move, respond to the environment changes, digest nutrients, carry out metabolism, dispose of waste, reproduce, and grow.
Why is it necessary to be in a pressurized cabin when flying at 30,000 ft.?
In flight, the cabin must be pressurized because the atmosphere is thinner at high altitudes and the amount of oxygen entering the blood under such conditions may be insufficient to maintain life.
What is the ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world changes continuously?
What is the dynamic state of equilibrium that the body needs to function?
Communication is performed primarily by what two systems?
Nervous and Endocrine
How does the nervous and endocrine systems communicate?
Use of neural electrical impulses or blood-borne hormones respectively, as information carriers
What are the three components in homeostasis?
Receptor, Control Center, and Effector in that order
Regarding homeostasis, what is a receptor?
Some type of sensor that monitors the environment and responds to changes, call stimuli
Regarding homeostasis, what is the control center?
Part of the process that determines the set point (action to executed ), which is the level of range at which a variable is to be maintained.
What the afferent pathway?
Homeostasis process from the receptor to the control center.
What is the efferent pathway?
Homeostasis process from the control center to the effector
Concerning the homeostasis process, what is the effector?
the means for the control center's response (output) to the stimuli
Most homeostasis processes are positive feedback mechanisms.
T or F
False, most are negative.
What defines a homeostasis negative feedback mechanisms?
The output shuts off the original effect of the stimuli or reduces its intensity.
These mechanisms cause the variable to change in a direction opposite to that of the original change
Returning it to its ideal value.
A hand being pulled away from a painful stimuli such as broken glass is an example of what reflex?
What defines a homeostasis positive feedback mechanism?
It enhances the original stimuli so that the response is accelerated.
Proceed in the same direction as the initial change.
What process allows us to adjust to either extreme cold or heat?
Negative feedback allows us to adjust to conditions outside the normal temperature ranges by causing heat to be lost from the body and retain or generated by the body.
When we begin to get dehydrated, we usually get thirsty, which causes us to drink fluids. Is thirst part of a negative or a positive feedback control system? Explain.
Thirst is part of a negative feedback control system because it pods us to drink water, which ends the thirst stimuli and returns to the body fluid to it normal range.
The structural and functional unit of life is a?
What is anything that occupies space and has mass?
What are the states of matter?
Solid, gas, or liquid
Energy is less tangible compared to matter, how can it be measured?
Can only be measured by its effect on matter.
Energy takes up _____ mass or space.
What is the capacity to do work, or to put matter into motion?
What is another word for capable energy?
Define kinetic energy.
Energy in motion
What is stored energy?
Why are matter and energy inseparable?
All living things are composed of matter and they all require energy to grow and function
What is the compound the body uses for energy?
What is the form of energy stored in the bonds of chemical substances?
What are the four forms of energy?
Radiant; Electromagnetic radiation
How is energy stored in the body at a chemical level?
In bonds called adenosine triphosphate
What type of energy results from the movement of charged particles?
What is mechanical energy?
Energy directly involved in moving matter. i.e. running
What is energy stored in waves?
Radiant energy; electromagnetic radiation
Energy stored in waves. These waves, which vary in length, are collectively called . . .
The electromagnetic spectrum
Why are energy conversions ineffective?
Energy supply is always lost to the environment as heat.
What form of energy is found the food we eat?
What form of energy is used to transmit messages from one part of the body to another?
What type of energy is available when we are still?
When we are excising?
All matter is composed of . . .
What are unique substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical methods.
______, _______, ________, _______-make up about 96% of body weight.
Term used for an oddly shaped checkerboard that provides a listing of the known elements and helps to explain the properties of each element
What are atomic symbols?
One- to two-letter chemical shorthand used to identify element on periodic table.
What elements' building blocks?
What is the difference between physical and chemical properties?
Physical can be detected by our senses or measured.
Chemical is interaction with other atoms (bonding behavior)
What is the weight of an electron (amu)?
What is the weight of a neutron and of a proton?
What are the charges of an elements' atoms?
What determines the properties of an element?
The number of protons, neutrons, and electrons
Most of the volume of an element is______, and nearly all of its mass is concentrated in the ______.
The atomic number is equal to the number of ______.
The number of protons is equal to the atomic number, as well as the number of ______.
What is the sum of an element's proton and neutron mass?
Where is the mass number indicated?
By a superscript to the left of the atomic sybol
What defines an isotope?
Same proton and electron ratio, but different neutron number from proton.
What element is the most abundant isotope?
What is an element's average of the relative weights (mass numbers) of all the isotopes of an element, taking into account their relative abundance in nature.
Concerning isotopes, the heavier or lighter the element's isotope the more unstable.
Isotopes in the process of decay are called?
The process of atomic decay.
What two elements besides H and N make up the bulk of living matter?
Carbon and oxygen
How does the terms atomic mass and atomic weight differ?
Atomic mass indicated the number of proton and neutrons in an atom's given nucleus.
Atomic weight indicated the average mass of all the isotopes of the given element.
Most atoms do not exist in the free state, but instead are ______ combined with other atoms.
In general, two or more atoms chemically combined is called . . .
Two or more atoms combined chemically of the same element are called . . .
Molecule of that element
Two or more different kinds of atoms bind, the form molecules of a ________.
Physically intermixed two or more components are called what type of substance?
What are the three types of mixtures?
What defines a solution?
Homogeneous (same composition throughout evenly). May be in the form of gas, liquid, or solid.
What defines a solvent?
Must have the greater presence
Be the dissolving medium (usually liquids)
Substances that dissolve into a solvent
Most solutions in the body are true solutions. What defines a true solution?
Dissolve in water
Are minute, usually in the form of individual atoms and molecules
No visable to the naked eye
Do not settle out
Do not scatter light
We describe true solutions in terms of their _____.
What is two way to describe concentration of a solution?
Percent of the solute in the total solution
Express the concentrate in terms of of it molarity (moles per liter)
How can concentration be measured?
In the matter of describing concentrate, which method is more useful and accurate?
Express the concentrate in terms of of it molarity (moles per liter)
What is a mole?
Measurement equal to the atomic weight of an element.
Molecular mass is equal to . . .
The sum of the atomic weights
Avogadro's number is used to represent the product or total _______.
Do not settle out
Often translucent or milky
What is another term for colloid?
Concerning colloid mixtures, what is the sol-gel transformation?
To change reversibly from a fluid(sol) state to a more solid(gel) state.
Tend to settle out
What is the chief difference between mixtures and compounds?
No chemical bonding occurs between the components of a mixture.
Components of a mixture can be separated by what 3 methods?
Components of a compound can be separated only by . . .
By physical means-straining, filtering, evaporation, and so on
Chemical means(breaking bonds)
All compounds are ________, whereas mixtures can be ________ or ________.
Homogeneous or heterogeneous
Why is sodium chloride (NaCl) considered a compound, but oxygen is not?
A compound is formed when two or more different kinds of atoms chemically bond together, like NaCl.
Blood contains a liquid component and living cells. Would it be classified as a compound or a mixture. Why?
Blood is a mixture because its components are not changed by their combination and they can be separated by physical means.
Atoms combine with other atoms via what type of bonds?
The closer the electron shell the less energy(potential energy) it has.
T or F
False, the more.
The closer the electron shell, or energy level, the _____ likely it is to interact chemically with other atoms.
The farther the electron shell, or energy level, the _____ likely it is to interact chemically with other atoms
What is the term for nonreactive atoms
For an atom to be chemically inert, it must have how many electrons in its valence shell(outer most shell)?
What the term for the outer most electron shell?
Valence electron shell
The Octet Rule, or rule of 8, demands that a valence shell be filled with ______.
8 valence electrons
What are the three major types of chemical bonds?
What defines an ionic bond?
The transferring of valence electrons from one atom to another to reach stability.
What are ions?
Atoms that have lost or gained a valance electron to reach stability.
Most ionic compounds fall into the chemical category called ?
What are crystals?
A large array of cations (pos. charge ions) and anions (neg. charge ions) held together by ionic bonds.
Concerning ions, what is an anion(electron acceptor)?
The net negative charge ion from an ionic bond.
Concerning ions, what is a cation(electron donor)?
A net positive charged ion from an ionic bond.
What defines a covalent bond?
A bond in which valance electrons are shared.
When 2 atoms share a single valence electron pair, its considered a what ? When they share 2? When they share 3?
Single covalent bond
Double covalent bond
Triple covalent bond
Covalent bonds fall into 2 categories. Name them.
Polar and non-polar
Non-polar covalent bonds are defined by. . .
The resulting of electrically balanced atoms
Polar covalent bonds are defined by . . .
A non-symmetrical molecule containing atoms with different electron-attracting abilities. (different charges)
In a non polar covalent bond, the electron acceptor is the most attractive in regards to electron. This capability is called ________.
In a non polar covalent bond, the electron donor is the least attractive in regards to electron. This capability is called ________.
Because water has two poles of charge, it is a polar molecule, or ______.
Hydrogen bonding is responsible for the tendency of water molecules to cling together and form films, referred to as _________.
Define Hydrogen bonds
Hydrogen bonds form when a hydrogen atom, already covalently linked to one electronegativeatom (usually nitrogen or oxygen(, is attached to another electron-hungry atom, so that a "bridge" is formed between them.
What type of bond is important bonds between molecules? Called intramolecular bonds.
Whenever a chemical bond occurs, rearranged, or broken, its called a
What are balanced equations indicating the relative proportions of each reactant and product?
H2CH2 is an example of a __________. The product in each case.
Synthesis reaction, or combination reactions are the basis of constructive, or . . .
Decomposition, or reverse synthesis reactions are degradative, or . . .
What factors influence the rate of chemical reactions?
What are catalysts?
Substances that increase the rate of chemical reactions without themselves being chemically altered or becoming part of the product.
An ________reaction occurs when ATP reacts with glucose and transfers its end phosphate group to glucose., forming glucose-phosphate.
Exchange, or displacement reaction
Oxidation-reduction (redox reactions) reactions are ________ reactions.
Redox reactions (oxidation-reduction reactions) are also a special type of exchange reaction because electrons are exchanged between the reactants. The losing reactant (electron donor) is said to be _______. The electron acceptor is said to become _______.
Energy released during chemical reactions are _______.
Energy(potential) absorbed during a chemical reaction is called . . .
Theoretically reversible equations are said to be in a state of _________.
What is the study of the chemical composition and reactions of living matter?
Organic compounds differ from inorganic, how?
Organic contains carbon
Water is the most abundant and important inorganic compound in living things because of several properties: . . .
High heat capacity
High heat of vaporization
Polar solvent properties (universal solvent)
Water forms layers of water molecules called ______, around large charged molecules such as protein, shielding them from the effects of other substances in the vicinity and preventing them from settling out of solution.
An ionic compound containing cations other than H+ and anions other than hydroxyl ion (OH-).
Electrolytes are substances that conduct an electrical current in solution.
T or F
What defines acids?
Highly reactant with metals
Releases hydrogen ions (H+) in detectable amounts
Because a hydrogen ion is just a hydrogen nucleus, acids are often referred to as _______.
What defines a base?
Hydroxyl ion (OH-) detectable in significant amounts
What type of reaction occurs when you mix an acid with a base in an effort to neutralize them?
Homeostasis of acid-base balance is carefully regulated by the _____ and the _______ and by chemical systems (protein and other types of molecules) called _______.
Acids that ______ completely and _______ with water are called strong acids.
Acids that _______ dissociate completely, like carbonic acid and acetic acids are called ________.
The major blood buffer used for acid-base control.
Carbonic acid-bicarbonate system
Strong bases dissociate _______ in water and quickly tie up H+
Salts are electrolytes. What does this mean?
Electrolytes are substances that will conduct an electrical current in aqueous solutions.
Which ion is responsible for increased acidity?
To minimize the sharp pH shift that occurs when a strong acid is added to a solution, is it better to add a weak or stronger base? Why?
It is better to add a weaker base, which will act to buffer the strong acid.
Carbon is electroneutral, electrically balanced on its own. Therefore, it always _______electrons.
What are chain-like molecules made up of smaller, identical, or similar units (monomers)?
The breakdown of chain like molecules by covalent bonds, taking away a H+ from a monomer and a OH- from another monomer is called . . .
The opposite of dehydration synthesis is called . . .
What is the result of hydrolysis reactions and how are these reactions accomplished in the body?
Hydrolysis reactions are decomposition reactions in which molecules are broken down to simpler substances by addition of a water molecule to each bond.
What are the monomers of carbohydrates called? Which monomer is blood sugar?
Monomers of carbs are called monosaccharides or simple sugars
Glucose is blood sugar
What is the animal form of stored carbs called?
The animal form of carbs is glycogen.
What are lipids?
Lipids are fats. Insoluble in water, but dissolve readily in other lipids
What are the three types of lipids?
Triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids
A triglyceride consists of a . . .
3 fatty acids
A glycerol compound
What is the difference between saturated and nonsaturated fats?
Saturated fats' fatty acids chains with only single covalent bonds between carbon
Unsat. contain one or more double bonds.
Polyunsat. for more than one double bond.
Monunsat. for only one.
What are fat that have solidified with the addition of H atoms at sites of carbon double bonds?
What are the worse fats?
Phospholipids differ from triglycerides, how?
They have a polar phosphate head. in addition to the composition of a regular triglyceride.
What is the single most important steroid in the body?
What are the building blocks of proteins?
What makes each amino acid unique?
The R group components
Adensine always binds with
Guanine always binds with
________ are the major building blocks of DNA
mRNA, rRNA, tRNA are all involved in
What is the base difference in DNA and RNA?
DNA: adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine
RNA: adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil
Where is major cellular site for DNA and RNA?
What are the major function of DNA and RNA?
DNA: is the genetic material; directs protein synthesis; replicates itself before cell division
RNA: carries out the genetic instructions for protein synthesis
What is the sugar difference between DNA and RNA?
Describe the structure of RNA.
Single strand, straight or folded.
Glucose is an energy-rich molecule. So why do body cells need ATP?
ATP stores energy in small packets that are more readily released and transferred (during ATP hydrolysis) than energy stored in glucose. Hence the use of ATP as an energy source keeps energy waste to a minimum.
What change occurs in ATP when it releases energy?
When ATP releases energy, it loses a phosphate group and become ADP.
Amino acids are linked together by ______ bonds.
The _______ sequence of amino acids composing the polypeptide chain is the primary structure for a protein.
The linear sequence of amino acids composing the polypeptide chain is the __________ for a protein.
Proteins twisting and bending upon themselves to form a complex ___________ structure.
What are the two types of secondary structures?
Beta-pleated (do not coil)
Concerning protein structural levels, distinguishing feature of primary level is
Its linear sequence
Secondary protein structure; alpha helix is stabilized by . . .
Secondary protein structure; beta-pleated, _______ bonds are held together by hydrogen bonds.
What defines fibrous (structural)proteins?
Insoluble in water
Supports and tensile strength to the body's tissue
What defines globular protein(functional)?
Chemically active and functional in numerous processes
Antibodies, hormones, enzymes, chaperones.
Tight junctions are . . .
A series of integral protein molecules in the plasma membrane.
Interlocking junctional proteins
Act like molecular "velco"
Internal tension-reducing network of fibers
channels between cells( formed by connexons)
What are two major differences between passive and active processes?
Passive does not require cellular energy
Passive: substances moves down its concentration gradient (kinetic energy)
Active requires cellular energy
Active occurs only in living cell membranes
What is diffusion and how is it similar to osmosis?
Molecules move from a higher to low concentration. Gradient downhill
Diffusion of water is called osmosis
"Water goes where the salt is"
What does active transport require?
Primary active transport requires . . .
energy directly from ATP hydrolysis
Secondary active transport requires
energy indirectly from "ionic gradients" created by primary active transport
What is the differenece between symport and antiport system?
Symport is 2 substances moving in the same direction
Antiport is 2 moving in the opposite directions.
Vesicular transport is used . . .
Within the cell. It is transport within the cell between organelles
Primary active transport: NA+-K+ pump (antiport)must drive (requires ________) NA+ and K+ against their concentration gradient to maintain proper concentration or _________.
Transport out of the cell. Secretions
Term for transport into the cell.
What term describes transport into, across,and then out of the cell?
Define vesicular trafficking.
Transport from one are or organelle in cell to another. (stay within the cell)
What is phagocytosis?
Cell eating cell
What is pinocytosis?
Ribosomes . . .
are the site of protein synthesis
What is the difference between mitosis and cytokinesis?
Mitosis is nuclear division
Cytokinesis is division of cytoplasma
Transcription occurs in the
Translation occurs in the
tRNA, mRNA, and rRNA are all involved in
Transcription=mRNA . . .
Mitochondrion is known as the . . .
Powerhouse of the cell, generation of ATP
Ribosomes are the site for
Rough ER manufacures all
Synthesis membrane intergal proteins
Cell's membrane factory
Smooth ER has no _______, and does not contribute to _________.
Smooth ER functions in
Detoxification of drugs
Storage & release of calcium
Golgi Apparatus is in charge of
Packaging and distribution of proteins and lipids
Lysosomes contain enzymes that . . .
Digest harmful substances
Cytoskeletal elements support the ______ & help to _________ movement.
Cilia and/or flagellum are . . .
DNA is in chromatin form except when the cell is
Fundamental units of chromatin
When the cell prepares to divide chromatin threads coil and condense enormously to form . . .