Chp 4 Development of the face and neck

  1. What embryonic layers are involved in facial development
    All three
  2. What five facial processes are involved in facial development
    • Frontonasal process
    • Maxillary (paired)
    • Mandibular (paired)
  3. The upper portion of the face is formed from what process
  4. The middle portion of the face is formed from what process
  5. The lower portion of the face is formed from what process
  6. During what weeks does facial development begin and end
    Begins in the 4th week and completes in the 12th
  7. Most facial tissues develop by
    fusion of swellings of tissues on the same surface of the embryo
  8. Around the 5th week how are the facial grooves eliminated
    underlying mesenchymal tissues (mesoderm) growing up into the groove, making the surface smooth
  9. The oropharyngeal membrane separates the _______ from the _______
    • stomodeum
    • primitive pharynx
  10. Foregut
    The beginning of the digestive tract
  11. The most cranial part of the foregut
    The primitive pharynx
  12. What is the first event in the development of the face in the 4th week
    disintegration of the oropharyngeal membrane
  13. The mandibular processes consist of
    core of mesenchyme (mesoderm) formed in part by neural crest cells and covered externally by ectoderm and internally by endoderm
  14. The mandibular arch is also considered the
    first branchial arch
  15. Cartilage formed on each side of the mandibular forming arch
    Meckel's cartilage
  16. A portion of Meckel’s cartilage participates
    in formation of the middle ear bones (incus and malleus).
  17. The mesoderm of the mandibular arch forms the
    muscles of mastication
  18. The muscles of mastication are innervated by
    the fifth cranial nerve or trigeminal nerve
  19. Four muscles of mastication
    • masseter
    • medial and lateral pterygoids
    • temporalis
  20. Where do the maxillary processes originate from
    Swellings from the mandibular arch during the 5th week that grow superior and anterior to the stomodeum
  21. The maxillary process will come to form the
    • the upper lip
    • cheeks
    • secondary palate
    •  posterior portion of the maxilla
    • zygomatic bones
    • portions of the temporal bone
  22. The maxillary process forms the _______ and _______ teeth
    • maxillary canines
    • posterior teeth
  23. The frontonasal process will come to form
  24. What are placodes and what do they form
    • Specialized thickening ectodermal tissue
    • They form the eyes, nose and ears
  25. The medial nasal processes come from the ______ and Externally form the _______&________
    • frontonasal process
    • middle portion of the nose and philtrum
  26. The medial nasal processes fuse internally to form the
    intermaxillary segment or premaxilla or primary palate
  27. What regions are associated with the Internal fusion of the medial nasal processes
    • the maxillary incisor teeth 
    • primary palate
    • nasal septum
  28. What processes come from the frontonasal process
    • Medial nasal process
    • Lateral nasal process
  29. What do the lateral nasal processes form
    The alae or sides of the nose
  30. The nares or nostrils are formed by the fusion of the ______ and ______ processes
    lateral and medial nasal processes
  31. The upper lip is formed by the fusion of the _____ and _____ processes
    maxillary (sides) and medial nasal (middle)
  32. Fusion of the upper lip is completed by the
    6th week
  33. How often does cleft lip occur
    • 1 in 1000 births
    • Boys more than girls
  34. How does a cleft lip occur
    failure of the mesenchyme to grow beneath the ectoderm to obliterate any grooves between these processes
  35. The labial commissures are formed by the fusion of the ______ and _______ processes
    maxillary and mandibular
  36. The development of the neck occurs in the
    4th week
  37. The neck and its associated tissues develop from
    the primitive pharynx and the branchial apparatus
  38. The foregut is originally derives from the ______ layer
  39. The second brachial arch is also known as the
    hyoid arch
  40. Cartilage formed in the second branchial arch
    Reichert’s cartilage
  41. Parts of Reichert’s cartilage are responsible for
    middle ear bone, a process of the temporal bone and portions of the hyoid bone.
  42. The mesoderm of the hyoid (2nd) arches helps form
    the muscles of facial expression
  43. Muscles of facial expression are innervated by
    the seventh cranial nerve, the facial nerve
  44. The unnamed cartilage from the third branchial arch forms
    parts of the hyoid bone
  45. The mesoderm of the third branchial arches helps form
    The pharyngeal muscle
  46. The pharyngeal muscle is innervated by the
    ninth cranial nerve, the glossopharyngeal nerve
  47. The fifth branchial arch is
    absent in humans
  48. The unnamed cartilage from the 4th and 6th branchial arches forms the
    laryngeal cartilages
  49. The mesoderm from the 4th and 6th arches form
    the muscles associated with the pharynx and larynx
  50. The 4th and 6th arches are innervated by
    tenth cranial nerve, the vagus nerve
  51. Between the branchial arches are the
    branchial grooves or pharyngeal grooves
  52. The thyroid develops from the
    endoderm of the foramen cecum
  53. Four pharyngeal pouches develop from
    the endoderm lining the walls of the pharynx
  54. The first branchial groove deepens to become
    the external auditory canal leading to the inner ear
  55. The first pharyngeal pouch gives way to the
    The middle ear and eustacian tube
  56. The second pharyngeal pouch becomes the
    palatine tonsils
  57. The third pharyngeal  pouch becomes
    the parathyroid and thymus glands
  58. The fourth pharyngeal pouch becomes
    superior parathyroid glands
Card Set
Chp 4 Development of the face and neck
Chp 4 Development of the face and neck