Nursing 1118 Unit 1

  1. What percentage of cardiac output does the atrium contribute?
  2. Closure of Atrioventricular (AV) what heart sound?
    S1 "Lub"
  3. Closure of Semilunar valve What sound?
    S2 "Dub"
  4. When are the coronary parties perfused?
    During diastole or ventricular relaxion
  5. What is cardiac output?
    Stroke volume X heart rate
  6. What is stroke volume?
    The amount of blood ejected from the heart with each contraction. Or end diastolic volume-End systolic volume
  7. What is the average amount of stroke volume in an adult?
    70 ml
  8. What is average adult cardiac output?
    • 4-8 liters per minute
    • ex. pulse 60 
    • Stroke vlo.70
    • 70 ml X 60 bpm = 4200 ml/min or 4.2 L/min
  9. Does bradycardia cause low or high cardiac output?
    • low
    • ex. sv=70 bpm=40 70X40= 2800ml/minor 2.8 lit/min
  10. What can too much beta blocker cause?
    Too slow of heart rate. Decreased cardiac output.
  11. What is ejection fraction (EF)?
    Stroke volume/(Divided by)End diastolic volume, it = the % if total blood ejected from the heart with each beat.
  12. What is the average ejection fraction(EF)?
    Normal is 50-70%
  13. What are symptoms of a patient having an ejection fraction <50?
    SOB, fatigue, chest pain, can't complete ADL's
  14. What is cardiac reserve?
    the ability of the heart to respond to the bodies changing needs. ex tri-athletes and low heart rate but good sv
  15. What does digoxin do?
    Slows the heart rate
  16. What is cardiac output adjusted to the  patient's body size or body surface are (BSA)?
    Cardiac Index
  17. The amount of blood in the ventricle right before ventricular contraction is?
    End diastolic volume EDV
  18. What is the amount of blood left in the ventricle right after ventricular contraction
  19. At how many beats per minute will you have decreased ventricular filling?
    >150 bpm
  20. Define preload
    Amount of fluid minus the amount of cardiac muscle fiber tension, or stretch, that exists at the end of diastole, just before the contraction of the ventricle
  21. What's important to know about preload and starlings law of the heart?
    Its like a rubber band, over time(if too much fluid is given) the stretchiness wears out.  The goal of patients in heart failure is to decrease preload.
  22. What increases preload?
    too much iv fluid,  renal failure, congestive heart failure (results if Na+ & water retention, electrolyte imbalance, vasoconstriction,
  23. What are some things that decrease preload?
    diuretics, blood loss (hemorrhage), fluid restrictions.
  24. negative effects of decreased preload?
    decreased preload reduces SV and ultimately CO.  Decreased preload may be caused from hemorrhage or misdistribution of bold volume such as in third spacing
  25. Define Afterload
    the force that the ventricles must overcome to eject their blood volume into the pulmonary artery and aorta (BP)
  26. The right ventricle generating enough tension to open the pulmonary valve and eject its volume into the low-pressure pulmonary arteries, measured as pulmonary vascular resistance(PVR)
  27. calcium channel blockers do what?
    decrease HR and BP
  28. Beta blockers do what?
    Decrease BP and block the effects of epinephrine and adrenaline
  29. Which node is located in the right atrial and sets the pace for the heart as a whole, or the pace maker of the heart
    SA node sinoartial atrial node
  30. Which node is located directly above the tricuspid valve?
    The AV node atrioventricular node
  31. At what pace will the AV node pace the heart if the SA node fails?
    40-60 bpm
  32. what is the only electrical connection between the ratio and ventricles?
    the atrioventricular bundle or the bundle of HIS
  33. If SA node and AV node what will pace the hear and at what rate?
    Perkinje fibers will pace the heart at 20-40 bpm
  34. What is electrical activity but no actual mechanical muscle contractions called?
    Pulseless Electrical Activity
Card Set
Nursing 1118 Unit 1
RCTC Nursing Unit 1