refers to the bones of the head + neck + trunk
refers to the bones of the upper & lower limbs
- connective tissue that forms parts of the skeleton where more flexibility is required
- ex. costal cartilages attach rib to the sternum
Proportion of bone & cartilage in the skeleton
The younger a person is, the more cartilage he/she has
Function of bone
- support + protection
- basis for movement
- reservoir of ions (calcium & phosphate)
- supplies new blood cells
connective tissue that surrounds the bones
connective tissue that surrounds cartilage (except articular cartilage)
- found where tendons cross ends of long bones
- protect tendons from excessive wear
- change angle of tendons as they pass to their attachments
- serve protective functions
- ex. cranium flat bones protect the brain
small, round, articular head
What are the 2 main parts of the skull?
Cranium & Facial Bones
What is the cranium's function & what/how many bones make it up?
- protection of the brain
- temporal (2), parietal (2), frontal (1), occipital (1), ethoid (1), sphenoid (1)
What/how many facial bones are there?
- zygomatic bones = cheekbones
- nasal bones = nasal conchas
- lacrimal bones = near tear ducts where tears come from
What are the 4 main body parts in the chest?
How many ribs are there & what are they attached to?
- 12 ribs, 13 is unusual but may happen
- Posteriorly attached to vertebra
- Anteriorly attached to costal cartilages, which are attached to the sternum
If there happens to be a 13th rib, what would it be attached to?
- possibly to the 1st lumbar = lumbar rib / gorrilla rib
- if attached to the 1st vertebra, then it would be attached to the cervical rib
What/how many parts make up the sternum?
Manubrium + body + xiphoid process
Function & location of hyoid bone?
serves as an anchoring structure for the bone
Body parts that make up the upper extremities? (+ other names for each)
- Shoulder = shoulder girdle
- Arm = brachium region
- Forearm = anti-brachium region
- Wrist = carpus/ carpal region
2 parts that make up the shoulder girdle?
- Clavicle = anterior, aka collar bone
- Scapula = posterior, triangle shaped bone on back
Another region name for the arm? What bone is located here?
- Brachium region
- Humerus bone
What bones is the forearm made of? Another name for forearm region?
- Anti-brachium region
- Radius (lateral) & ulna (medial)
How are the radius & ulna different in terms of movement? & how can they be differentiated between one another?
- Since the radius is lateral, it can extend and flex while ulna can only do one
- Ulna is usually the thinner bone so it is easy to tell them apart
How many bones make up the wrist & how are they organized?
- 8 carpal bones
- divided into 2 groups (proximal & distal)
What is carpal tunnel syndrome?
Pinched nerve in the wrist results in numbness & tingling in the hand
What is the hand made up of? (2 parts)
metacarpals + phalanges
What does MP joint stand for?
metacarpal phalangeal joints
What are the body parts that make up the lower extremities?
- Pelvis (os coxee)
- Femur (thigh region)
What are the parts that make up the pelvis?
- ilium - top
- pubis - anterior
- ischium - posterior (where you sit down)
What is the acetabulum?
the point at which the 3 bones of the pelvis fuse together
Cons of having 3 bones fused into 1 for the pelvis?
- Since they are fused together in the middle, there are weak points
- If trauma occurs, it can travel to the point of fusion and separate the 3 bones
What is the patella?
joint between femur and patella
Bones that make up the leg?
tibia (medial) & fibula (lateral/ thinner)
Another name for bones in the ankle?
What is the foot made up of? (2 parts)
Metatarsals & phalanges
How are the different types of cartilage divided?
based on what they secrete
What does hyaline cartilage secrete?
intracellular matrix secretes hyalumonic acid and mucopolysaccarides (but this is secreted by all of them)
Main difference between bones and cartilage? Why is this important?
- Bones have blood vessels inside but cartilage doesn't
- because of this, harder to recover from cartilage damage than bone damage because bones get more nutrients/blood vessels
Where are cartilages located in the skeletal system?
Mostly at the ends of bones
Function of periosteum & periochondrium?
- nourish external aspects of skeletal tissue
- can lay down more cartilage/bone, especially during fracture healing
- provide interface for attachment of tendons & ligaments
What does fibrocartilage secrete?
icm secretes collagenous fibers + mucopolysaccharides
What does elastic fiber secrete?
elastic fibers produced by icm