Anatomical Terms

  1. Name & describe the 4 anatomical planes
    • median - vertical line that divides body into left & right halves
    • sagittal - vertical planes passing through body but parallel to the median plane
    • frontal - vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior, at right angle to median plane
    • transverse - horizontal planes dividing body into superior and inferior halves
  2. Caudal
    towards the feet or tail region
  3. Cranial
    towards the head or cranium
  4. Medial
    a structure that is nearer to the median plane of the body
  5. Lateral
    a structure that is farther away from the median plane
  6. Dorsum
    superior aspect of any part that protrudes anteriorly from the body (dorsum of the tongue, nose, foot, penis)
  7. Dorsal Surface
    the surface of the hands, feet, and digits opposite the palm/sole
  8. Palmar surface
    of the hand/fingers corresponding to the palm
  9. Plantar surface
    surface of the foot/toes corresponding to the toes
  10. Inferomedial
    nearer to the feet and median plane (ex. anterior part of the ribs)
  11. Superolateral
    nearer to the head and farther from median plane
  12. Bilateral
    paired structures having right and left members (kidneys)
  13. Ipsilateral
    occurs on the same side of the body as another structure (right thumb & right big toe)
  14. Contralateral
    occurs on opposite sides of the body relative to another structure (right vs. left hand)
  15. Superficial
    nearer to the surface
  16. Intermediate
    between a superficial and deep surface
  17. Deep
    farther from the surface
  18. Proximal
    • nearer to trunk/point of origin
    • ex. elbow is proximal to wrist, proximal part of artery is its beginning
  19. Distal
    • farther from trunk/point of origin
    • ex. wrist is distal to elbow, distal part of upper limb is the hand
  20. Flexion
    • bending/decreasing the angle between bones or parts of the body
    • usually in anterior direction
  21. Extension
    • straightening/increasing angle between bones or parts of the body
    • usually in posterior direction
  22. Dorsiflexion
    • flexion at the ankle joint
    • ex. walking uphill or lifting front of foot + toes off ground
  23. Plantarflexion
    • bending toes and foot towards ground
    • ex. standing on toes
  24. Hyperextension
    • exntending limb or body part beyond normal limit
    • ex. can cause injury such as whiplash of the neck during rear-end collision in car
  25. Abduction
    moving body part away from the median plane of the body
  26. Adduction
    moving body part towards median plane of body
  27. Circumduction
    circular movement that results in distal end moving in a circle
  28. Rotation
    turning or revolving part of body around its longitudinal axis
  29. Supination vs. Pronation
    memory device -- you can hold soup in the palm of your hand when the forearm is supinated but are prone to spill it if the forearm is pronated

    Image Upload 2
  30. Eversion
    • moving the sole of the foot laterally away from the median plane
    • when this happens, the foot is dorsiflexed
  31. Inversion
    • moving the sole of the foot toward the median plane
    • when this happens, the foot is plantarflexed
  32. Opposition
    • pad of the 1st digit (thumb) is brought to another digit
    • ex. pinch, button shirt, hold tea cup
  33. Reposition
    movement of thumb from opposition back to its original anatomical position
  34. Protrusion
    • movement anteriorly forward
    • ex. protruding the mandible (chin), tongue, etc
  35. Retrusion
    • movement posteriorly backwards
    • ex. retruding mandible, lips, tongue
  36. Protraction/Retraction
    movement of scapula on thoracic wall which makes shoulder region move forward & backward

    Image Upload 4
  37. Elevation vs. Depression
    • elevation - raises body part superiorly
    • depression - lowers body part inferiorly
Card Set
Anatomical Terms
Ch.1 - positions, planes, terms of laterality