SOC 100 (1)

  1. sociology
    the systematic study of social behavior in human societies
  2. microsociology
    face to face, individual interactions
  3. macrosociology
    institutions, social organizations
  4. social structure
    • patterns of behavior, how society is organized
    • shapes and constrains our choices
    • can be understood thru social theory
  5. agency
    • our capacity to think and act
    • constrained by structure, but also able to effect change
  6. Emile Durkheim formally ____
    established sociology as a discipline
  7. anomie
    what results when there is a lack of collective consciousness, or no united code of right and wrong
  8. structural functionalism
    • seeks to identify the basic functions that must be fulfilled in all societies
    • ex. if something like religion or sports exists in society and persists over time, it must perform some necessary function that is important for the reproduction of society
  9. most important think Karl Marx thought you needed to know to understand society was ______
    its "mode of production"
  10. capitalism: workers alienated from the ___________
    products of their labour
  11. Max Weber
    • rise of rationally organized society
    • contemporary society: viewed as shift in power from traditional (customs) to processes of legal-rational authority (bureaucracies)
  12. formal rationality
    calculating most efficient means to achieve a goal
  13. bureaucracy
    institution where power rests in the position, not the person
  14. verstehen (weber's interpretive approach to theory)
    understanding the meanings carried by actors that lead them to make decisions
  15. microsociology
    • focus on individuals and their interactions
    • a bottom-up approach focused on communication and interpretation
  16. intersubjectivity
    • individuals orient their behaviour based on what they think (subjectively) others think
    • ability to "stand in others shoes" increase as we are better socialized
  17. conflict theory
    • focus on power: top-down domination and resistance from the bottom
    • how different groups struggle against each other
    • conflict theorists pay attention to power and social control created by socialization
  18. operationalization
    process of translating theories and concepts into hypotheses that are an observable (testable) statement of the main claims of the theory
  19. variables
    • empirical and observable equivalent of theoretical concepts
    • must be observable and capable of taking on a range of different values
  20. quantitative sociology
    • deals with numbers
    • answers coded into numerical form
  21. qualitative data/sociology?
    would be a survey question w/an open-ended question, researcher would read and try to understand question
  22. most widely used social scientific research technique?
  23. sampling
    using a small sample of a larger population to make statements about the large population
  24. primary data
    you design an experiment/survey and you collect the data
  25. secondary data analysis
    • re-analyzing existing data collected by others
    • easier than developing new data
    • but data may be imprecise for your project
  26. content analysis
    examination of newspapers, magazines, TV shows, case records
  27. what is socialization?
    acquisition of knowledge, skills, and motivations to participate in social life
  28. human behavior: nature argument
    behaviour is determined by biological forces
  29. human behaviour: nurture argument
    behaviour is influenced by the (social) environment
  30. socialization is a product of ____________
    classical or instrumental conditioning
  31. classical conditioning
    stimulus -> response, then becomes associated with a different stimulus
  32. operant/instrumental conditioning
    learning to make a certain response because of the outcome that the response produces
  33. assumptions for the symbolic interactionist frame of reference (3)
    • study interactions with others and environments
    • the human infant is asocial at birth
    • a socialized being is an actor as well as a reactr
  34. what is the symbolic interactionist frame of reference?
    • development through interaction with others
    • different statuses and roles with related expectations
    • constantly changing through significant/referent others
  35. functionalism
    • emphasis on the role and importance of socialization
    • examine how conformity helps to create adn preserve social harmony
    • intergenerational knowledge fosters solidarity and cooperation (passing down of values and norms)
  36. gender roles
    expectations related to masculinity and femininity
  37. sex roles
    expectations related to biology
  38. the family
    • primary source/agent of socialization
    • earliest source of emotional attachments
    • shape our values and beliefs (trust, limits)
  39. what kind of factors are family influenced by?
    • age at which parents have children
    • social class
    • ethnicity
    • family size
  40. reciprocal socialization
    socialization is a two-way process
  41. peer group
    • often seen as second most important agent of socialization
    • allows us to experiment and try on new roles
  42. anticipatory socialization
    • try to anticipate what roles and responsibilities we will have later in life
    • ex. household chores, childhood jobs, sports, dance lessons, dating
  43. resocialization
    • events, social movements, technological developments affect our behaviours, relationships, and self-images
    • occurs throughout life
  44. what is culture?
    • elements of social life that have meanings social actors can interpret and also convey
    • ex. languages, symbols, discourses, texts, knowledge, values, attitudes, beliefs, norms, worldviews, folkways, art, music, ideas, ideology
  45. structure
    • enduring patterns of social relations and social institutions through which society is organized and through which behaviour is carried out
    • ex. political and school system, taxes, free market financial system
  46. orthodox marxist theories
    • structural in nature
    • nature of society largely determined by the economic mode of production (econoic base of society)
    • everything else is known as the "super structure"
  47. neo-marxist theories
    • believe that ideological (super-structural) forces accompany the economic mode of production
    • the dominant ideology legitimates and perpetuates the existing order (minimizes criticism of capitalism and maximizes participation in and support of capitalism)
  48. cultural studies
    • culture manipulated by dominant (hegemonic) groups to reproduce inequality, by portraying it as natural and inevitable¬†
    • differs from marxism by seeing class conflict as just one kind of ideological dominance
  49. cultural functionalism
    • base their claims on the work of Emile Durkheim
    • focus on the integrative aspects of culture
    • culture reflects the needs of a society
    • culture is a functional social production
  50. symbolic interactionalist
    • culture is a vehicle that transmits meanings to people
    • culture is generated by individuals in fact-to-face encounters
  51. dramaturgical approach
    • Goffman
    • sending and receiving of signals and messages is central to the overall organization of society
    • people are like actors in a play (follow scripts, carry out role performances)
  52. discourse
    • a way of talking (writing, communicating) about something.
    • a set of ideas, concepts, and vocabulary routinely used together
  53. subculture
    • subset of cultural traits of the larger society
    • incl. distinctive values, beliefs, norms, style of dress, behavior
  54. nationalism
    • often the expression of a nation culture
    • form of cultural and political practice that ties symbols and values to the nation-state
  55. globalization
    generally refers to the fact that goods, services, information, people can move more easily from nation to nation
  56. deviance in statistical terms
    • rare or infrequent behavior¬†
    • outside of "the norm"
  57. deviance as a sociological concept
    not inherent in certain behaviours or physical features, but how these are treated on society
  58. enforcing laws is a form of _______
    social control
  59. social control
    • the ways in which individuals, groups, and institutions express their disapproval of people and behaviors
    • intended to produce conformity and compliance with rules, norms, laws
  60. socio-legal studies
    focuses on how the law operates as part of society
  61. Strain Theory
    • Merton
    • deviance as the result of strain caused by mal-integration of cultural and social structures of societies
    • aka lack of fit bw the cultural goals people are encouraged to seek and the means available to achieve these goals
  62. types of deviance created by strain theory
    innovation, ritualism, retreatism, and rebellion
  63. General Strain Theory
    • Agnew
    • looks at other kinds of strain, like negative conditions (abuse), or loss of something that is valued (bad breakup)
    • anything that makes someone feel under pressure
  64. Robert Agnew studied ______
    juvenile offenders
  65. Cultural Support Theory
    • considers how cultural beliefs create and sustain deviant behavior
    • we learn how to be deviant from our culture
  66. 3 parts of Cultural Support Theory
    • 1. people learn how to engage in crime
    • 2. this learning comes about through interaction with others who have already learned criminal way
    • 3. learned: criminal technique, motives, attitudes, rationalizations
  67. Control Theory
    • human beings are neither good nor evil
    • asks: why don't we all commit deviance?
    • focuses on: why we refrain from deviance, the processes that bind ppl to the social order
    • social bonds have a controlling effect, deviance result of weak bonds between ind. and the larger society
  68. Travis Hirschi?
    • the social bond
    • attachment: affective ties with others, you care about ppl so you don't wanna hurt or embarrass them
    • commitment: degree to which an individual pursues conventional goals, more committed to traditional goals, more likely to achieve them
    • involvement: degree to which an individual is active in conventional activities, too busy for deviance¬†
    • belief: in conventional values and legitimacy of the law
  69. Transactional character of deviance
    • symbolic interactionist
    • attention should be directed to situations rather than individuals
    • murder is the result of situations in which people feel offended and turn to violence
    • driving force is emotional rather than rational
Card Set
SOC 100 (1)
to first midterm