Chapter 11

  1. Discuss various lifestyle habits that threaten health and wellness.
    • 1. Overeating/Obesity
    • -availability of different foods
    • -more activity in reward regions of the brain when looking at good tasting food
    • -large portions
    • -socially contagious
    • -viewed negatively in society can lead to depression
    • 2. Disordered eating
    • -weight loss/weight gain alter metabolism may make future weight loss more difficult
    • -repeated failures damage self-esteem
    • -Anorexia nervosa
    • -Builimia nervosa

    • 3. Sexually transmitted infections
    • -HPV can cause birth defects
    • -increased risk of infertility

    • 4. Smoking
    • -heart disease, cancers
    • -withdrawal symptoms: anxiety
    • -nicotine increased activation of dopamine
  2. What is stress?
    -a group of behavioral, mental, and physical processes occurring when events match or exceed the organisms ability to respond in a healthy way
  3. Describe the physiological sequence of physiological responses to stress, according to the GAS model.
    • -Three stages of physical response to stress
    • 1. Alarm:
    • -emergency response
    • -heart rate increase
    • 2. resistance:
    • -body prepares for a longer, more sustained attack against the stressor
    • -immunity to infection and disease increases as the body maximizes its defense
    • 3. exhaustion
    • -after being exposed to a stressor for a long time
    • -body's ability to respond to stress begins to decline
    • -immune system begins to fail
    • -we get sick immediately after long periods of stress
    • -previous weak body systems will likely fail
  4. Compare and contrast fight/flight and tend/befriend
    • 1. Fight or flight
    • -physical response to stressors
    • -prepares a persons body to fight or run away from danger
    • -sympathetic nervous system
    • 2. Tend or Befriend
    • -female tendency to respond to stressors by protecting their offspring and forming social alliances to reduce risks
  5. Discuss the relationship between personality and stress? How do these relate to physical well-being?
    • -stress and negative emotions increase the risk of heart disease
    • -people cope through bad behaviors that are bad for health
    • 1. Type A behavior pattern
    • -people who are competitive, achievement oriented, aggressive, impatient-much more likely to develop heart disease
    • -high blood pressure
    • -hostility, freq angered people are much more likely to die earlier age
    • -body doesnt respond well, take toll on heart
    • 2. Type B behavior pattern
    • -noncompetitive, relaxed, easy going
  6. What are some psychological coping strategies?
    • 1. Primary appraisals
    • -making decision on whether a stimulus is stressful or not
    • 2. Secondary appraisals
    • -how to manage and respond to a stressful stimulus
    • 3. Emotion-focused copying
    • -people try to prevent from having a response to a stressor
    • -avoidance
    • -drink alcohol
    • 4.Problem-focused coping
    • -taking direct steps to confront or minimize a stressor
    • 5. Cognitive process: Downward comparison
    • -view your situation is not as bad as others
    • 6. Involving family
  7. What is wellness? What are some habits for wellness? How does each promote well-being?
    -positive state that includes striving for optimal health and life satifaction
  8. Anorexia nervosa
    excessive fear of becoming fat. Causes a loss of bone density and heart diseases
  9. Bulimia nervosa
    -alternate between dieting and binge eating
Card Set
Chapter 11
Psychology 101