BIO 221

  1. CHPT 1
    What is Anatomy?
    The scientific discipline that investigates the body's structure and examines the relationship between the structure of a body part and how it functions.
  2. CHPT 1
    Developmental Anatomy
    Studies the structural changes that occur between conception and adulthood.
  3. CHPT 1
    Embryology
    Changes from conception to the end of the eighth week of development.
  4. CHPT 1
    Cytology
    Examines the structural features of the cell.
  5. CHPT 1
    Histology
    Examines tissues, which are composed of cells and the materials surrounding them.
  6. CHPT 1
    Gross Anatomy
    The study of structures that can be examined without the aid of a microscope, can be approached from either a systematic or regional perspective.
  7. CHPT 1
    Systematic Anatomy
    Body is studied system by system- a group of structures that have one or more common functions.
  8. CHPT 1
    Regional Anatomy
    Body is studied area by area.
  9. CHPT 1
    Surface Anatomy
    The study of the external form of the body and its relation to deeper structures.
  10. CHPT 1
    Anatomical Imaging
    Use of radiographs (x-rays), ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and other technologies to create pictures of internal structures.
  11. CHPT 1
    Anatomic Anomalies
    Physical characteristics that differ from the normal patterns.
  12. CHPT 1
    Physiology
    The scientific investigations of the processes or function of living things-- to understand and predict the body's response to stimuli to understand how the body maintains conditions within a narrow range of values in a constantly changing environment.
  13. CHPT 1
    Cell Physiology
    Examines the processes occurring in cells.
  14. CHPT 1
    Systematic Physiology
    Considers the functions of organ systems.
  15. CHPT 1
    Neurophysiology
    Focuses on the nervous system.
  16. CHPT 1
    Cardiovascular Physiology
    Heart and blood vessels.
  17. CHPT 1
    True of False?
    Physiology often examines systems rather than regions?
    True-- A particular function can involve portions of a system in more than one region.
  18. CHPT 1
    Pathology
    The medical science dealing with all aspects of disease, with the emphasis on the cause and development of abnormal conditions, as well as the structural and functional changes resulting from the disease.
  19. CHPT 1
    Exercise Physiology
    Focuses on the changes in function and structure caused by exercise.
  20. CHPT 1
    Six levels of organization
    • -Chemical
    • -Cell
    • -Tissue
    • -Organ
    • -Organ System
    • -Whole Organism
  21. CHPT 1
    Chemical Level
    Involves interactions between atoms.
  22. CHPT 1
    Cell Level
    • Cells are the basic structural and functional units. 
    • Organelles are the small structures that make up cells.
  23. CHPT 1
    Tissue Level
    A tissue is composed of a group of similar cells and the materials surrounding them. The characteristics of the cell and surrounding materials determines the functions of the tissue.
  24. CHPT 1
    4 basic types of tissue
    • -Epithelial
    • -Connective
    • -Muscle
    • -Nercous
  25. CHPT 1
    Organ Level
    An organ is composed of two or more tissue types that perform one or more common functions.
  26. CHPT 1
    Organ System
    An organ system is a group of organs that together perform a common function or set of functions and are therefore viewed as a unit.
  27. CHPT 1
    11 major organ systems
    • -Integumentary
    • -Skeletal
    • -Muscular
    • -Nervous
    • -Endocrine
    • -Cardiovascular
    • -Lymphatic
    • -Respiratory
    • -Digestive
    • -Urinary
    • -Reproductive
  28. CHPT 1
    Organism Level
    An organism is any living thing considered as a whole- whether composed of one cell or a trillion cells.
  29. CHPT 1
    6 essential characteristics of life
    • -Organization
    • -Metabolism
    • -Responsiveness
    • -Growth
    • -Development
    • -Reproduction
  30. CHPT 1
    Characteristic of life: Organization
    The specific interrelationships among the parts of an organism and how those parts interact to perform specific functions.
  31. CHPT 1
    Characteristic of life: Metabolism
    All the chemical reactions taking place in an organism. Essential for responsiveness, growth, development, and reproduction.
  32. CHPT 1
    Characteristic of life: Responsiveness
    An organism's ability to sense changes in its external or internal environment and adjust to those changes.
  33. CHPT 1
    Characteristic of life: Growth
    Refers to an increase in the size or number of cells, which produces an overall enlargement of all or parts of an organism.
  34. CHPT 1
    Characteristic of life: Development
    Includes the changes an organism undergoes through time, beginning with fertilization and ending at death.
  35. CHPT 1
    Differentiation
    Change in cell structure and function from generalized to specialized.
  36. CHPT 1
    Morphogenesis
    Change in the shape of of tissues, organs, and the entire organism.
  37. CHPT 1
    Characteristic of life: Reproduction
    The formation of new cells or new organisms. Without reproduction of cells, growth and development are not possible. Without reproduction of organisms, species become extinct.
Author
Anonymous
ID
323019
Card Set
BIO 221
Description
Anatomy and Physiology Fall 2016
Updated