Chapter 1

  1. Define Psychology
    The study of mental activity and behavior, which are based on brain processes.
  2. Dualism
    • -mind and body are separate yet intertwined.
    • -body a machine
    • -mind was divine and separate from physical body
    • -Rene Descartes
  3. Structuralism
    • -the idea that conscious experience can be broken down into underlying parts.
    • -Identify the basic parts, or structures, of the conscious mind
    • -introspection: person might report on the quality (red) and intensity (bright) of an apple. 
    • -Problem: Each person has a personal and unique experience
  4. Functionalism
    • -Describe how the conscious mind aids adaptation to an environment
    • -focused on how mental and behavioral processes function
    • - how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish.
    • -Darwin major influencer
  5. Psychoanalytic theory
    • -Understand how unconscious thoughts cause psychological disorders
    • -mental processes operating below the level of conscious awareness
    • -unconscious forces include childhood experiences
    • -Sigmund Freud
  6. Gestalt psychology
    • -Study subjective perceptions as a unified whole
    • -the perception of objects is a personal experience
    • -The idea that the whole of personal experience is different from simply the sum of its parts.
    • -Ex. dots on a picture, might looks as dots but you see a dalmatian dog
  7. Behaviorism
    • -Describe behavior in response to environmental stimuli
    • -environmental factors influenced behavior
  8. Humanistic psychology
    -Investigate how people become happier and more fulfilled; focus on the basic goodness of people
  9. Cognitive psychology
    • -Explore internal mental processes that influence behavior
    • -The study of how people think, learn, and remember.
  10. social psychology
    -The study of how people are influenced by their interactions with others.
  11. Biological Psychology
    • -Study how biological systems give rise to mental activity.
    • -Ex. how do brain chemicals influence sexual behavior?
  12. Cognitive psychology
    • -Study attention, perception, memory, problem solving, and language, often based on brain processes.
    • -Ex. How do brain chemicals influence sexual behavior?
    • • How do brain cells change during learning?
  13. Developmental psychology
    • -Study how people change from infancy through old age.
    • -Ex. How do children learn to speak?
    • •-How can older adults maintain mental abilities as they age?
  14. Personality psychology
    • -Study enduring characteristics that people display over time and across circumstances.
    • -Ex. Why are some people shy?
  15. Social psychology
    • -study how people are affected by others
    • -Ex. when do people form impression of others?
  16. Cultural psychology
    -Study how people are influenced by the societal rules that dictate behavior in their cultures.
  17. Clinical psychology
    -Study the factors that cause psychological disorders and the best methods to treat them.
  18. Industrial/organizational psychology
    • -Study the factors that cause psychological disorders and the best methods to treat them.
    • -how can building morale help motivate others
  19. Scientific method
    -A systematic procedure of observing and measuring phenomena (observable things) to answer questions about what happens, when it happens, what causes it, and why. This process involves a dynamic interaction between theories, hypotheses, and research methods.
  20. Steps of Scientific Method
    • 1. Theory
    • 2. Hypothesis
    • 3. Test the hypothesis
    • 4. Analyze
  21. Theory
    A model of interconnected ideas or concepts that explains what is observed and makes predictions about future events.
  22. Hypothesis
    A specific prediction of what should be observed if a theory is correct.
  23. Descriptive methods
    • -A research method that provides a systematic and objective description of what is occurring.
    • -describe what is happening
  24. Correlational methods
    -A resarch method that examines how variables are naturally related in the real world. The researcher makes no attempt to alter the variables or assign causation between them
  25. Experimental Methods
    • -A research method that tests causal hypotheses by manipulating independent variables and measuring the effects on dependent variables.
    • -used to determine if one causes the other
    • -examine how one variable that is manipulated by researchers affects another variable.
  26. Types of Descriptive Methods
    • 1. Observational studies
    • 2. Self-reports
    • 3. Case studies
  27. Observational studies
    • -are a descriptive research method.
    • -They involve observing and classifying behavior, either with intervention by the observer or without intervention by the observer.
  28. Advantages of Observational studies
    • -valuable in the early stages of research
    • -can take place in a lab or a real-world setting
  29. Disadvantages of Observational Studies
    • -errors can occur because observer bias
    • -observer's presence can change the behavior being witness
  30. Self reports
    • -are a descriptive research method that involves asking questions of research participants. The participants then respond in any way they feel is appropriate or select from among a fixed number of options.
    • -surveys, questionaires
  31. Advantages of self-reports
    • - can gather data from a large number of people
    • -easy to administer
    • -cost efficient
    • -fast way to collect data
    • -face to face interviewing gives researcher new lines of questioning (new questions)
  32. Disadvantages of Self-reports
    • -people can introduce bias into their answers (self-report bias). People may not reveal information that casts them into negative light
    • -people may not recall information accurately
  33. Case studies
    -are a descriptive research method that involves intensive examination of one person or organization or a few individuals or organizations.
  34. Advantages of Case Studies
    -Can provide a lot of data
  35. Disadvantages of Case Studies
    • -can be very subjective
    • -results cannot be generalized from a single case study to the population
  36. Correlational Methods
    • -A research method that examines how variables are naturally related in the real world. The researcher makes no attempt to alter the variables or assign causation between them. 
    • -examines how one factor is related to another factor
  37. Advantages of Correlation research methods
    • -rely on naturally occurring relationships
    • -may take place in a real-world setting
  38. Disadvantages of Correlation research methods
    • -cannot demonstrate causal relationship
    • -cannot show the direction of the cause/effect relationship between variables
    • -an unidentified variable may be involved
  39. Advantages of Experimental research methods
    • -provide control over independent variables
    • -can demonstrate that one things causes another
    • -avoid directionality problem
  40. Disadvantages of Experimental research methods
    • -varying something other than indepent variable can affect dependent variable and lead to inaccurate conclusions
    • -often take place in artificial setting
  41. Independent variable
    -researcher manipulates this variable to examine impact on dependent variable
  42. Dependent variable
    -variable that is affected by the manipulation of the independent variable
  43. control group
    • -a comparison group of participants that receives no intervention or receives an intervention that is unrelated to the independent variable being investigated.
    • -Ex. participants would drink water instead of alcohol but they wouldnt know its water
  44. experimental group
    -In an experiment, one or more treatment groups of participants that receive the intervention of the independent variable being investigated.
  45. Charles Darwin and William James both understood the importance of
    the adaptive purpose of specific traits and characteristics.
  46. When attempting to understand the connection between psychological and physical problems, Freud concluded that
    to a large extent, behavior is directed by mental processes that operate at a subconscious level.
  47. According to this school of thought, the whole of personal experience is different than the sum of its parts.
    Gestalt theory
  48. What is empiricism?
    an approach to gaining knowledge about behavior and mental processes by observation and measurement only
Card Set
Chapter 1
Psychology 101