
hypothesis is..
speculation about how to explain facts or observations

To avoid biases, what type of hypothesis do you test?
null hypothesis

What type of question must be posed with every experiment?
research question

A hypothesis (best guess) is always written as a
statement

A research question tends to be..
A general inquiry that is considered "nondiectional" (does not say whether there is an adverse effect through association)

A hypothesis should always be __________ rather than just relying on basic associations
"nondirectional"

What are the five steps to testing a null hypothesis for statistical significance
 1) Develop a null and alternate hypothesis
 2) Establish the appropriate alpha level
 3) perform a suitable test of statistical significance on appropriately collected data
 4) Compare the p value from the test with the alpha level
 5) Fail to reject the null hypothesis

What are the six steps to the scientific method?
 1) Observe an event
 2) Develop a model (hypothesis) that makes a prediction
 3) Test the prediction
 4) Compare the p value from the test with the alpha level
 5) Reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis
 6) Repeat as needed

What is biostatistics?
A science that deals with the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation and presentation of information that can be stated numerically with regard to medical, public health and biological applications

What are the 4 main activities of an epidemiologist?
 1) Design Studies
 2) Collect and organize data,
 3)summarize results using appropriate statistical tests
 4) critically interpret findings

To be a responsible epidemiologist you should know to not rely on ________ with a statistican
collaboration

To be a responsible epidemiologist you should know how to distinguish between _________ data and routine __________

A statistic is..
an estimate based on a sample of an unknown numerical quantity in the population

If information is based on a ______ of the population, we want to use this information to make inductive inferences about the _________
sample population

When data is collected from a sample of a population, what should you do with the data?
make inferences about the underlying population

What's the main "equation" of biostatistics?
(Good sample data representative of the population) + (Good application of satistical methods) = (Good estimates of relevant parameters) + (Good decisions about whether or not certain hypotheses are tenable)

What are the five things (issues) an epidemiologist must do?
 1) Have to clearly define the research question
 2) Must choose the most appropriate study design
 3) Must select a representative sample for study
 4) Must collect data appropriately
 5) Must summarize using appropriate statistical methods in order to make the correct inferences

If a study was incorrectly planned or executed, no amount of statistical expertise can _______ the results
salvage

What are the 4 main statistical needs in the early stages of research?
 1) Recommend study designs for a given research question
 2) estimate the number of subjects (sample size) needed to achieve study objectives
 3) Develop efficient data collection methods
 4) Recommend ways to monitor the quality of data as it is collected

What are the three statistical needs after the data is collected?
 1) Recommend most appropriate statistical methods for analysis
 2) Interpret the findings in understandable terms
 3) Review and contribute to presentations and publications

Why do we need EEh 505?
Because you should have a good understandingstatistics to aid all future collaborations

The higher the "impact factor" of a publication the _______ it is
better

The impact facotr reflects what?
The number of times articles are cited

The impact factor is not necessarily an indicator of _________
quality

What are the three ways research is judged?
 1) It's perceived "impact factor"
 2) Subsequent frequency of citation in new peerreviewed research
 3) Reports of consistent (or inconsistent) findings [whether the results can be replicated or not]

"Inference" is another word for..
Prediction (conclusions)

Our goal is to make the strongest possible ________ from limited amounts of _____
conclusions (inferences) data

What do frequency distribution list?
Each value in the data and the frequency with which it occurs

Descriptive statistics are used to..
Summarize the information in a collection of data

Inferential statistics are used to..
Provide predictions about a population, based on a sample of the population

What are the four things a good scientific study includes?
 1) Clearly stated objectives
 2) Clearly stated hypothesis
 3) Specific effect to be estimated
 4) Specify defintions of terms essential to the study

The inferences we wish to make are limited by what two things?
Study design and selection of subjects.

What do we use study units for?
To make inferences about the population

Study units make up the _________
Population.

Increasing the number of measurements taken on a study unit is not the ________ to increasing the number of study units.

The population is...
the total set of subjects of interest in a study

The sample is...
the subset of the population on which the study collects data

What do we call the quantity computed from the sample data?
statistic

What is a parameter?
A quantity that is characteristic of the population

If a sample is representative of the population, _____________ will give accurate impressions of the corresponding __________ of the population
descriptive statistics parameters

What is a target population?
The whole group of study units to what we are interested in applying our conclusions

Target population is also known as..
sampling frame

What is the study population?
The group of study units to which we can legitimately apply our conclusions

The study population and the inaccessible study units together make up..
target population

The accessible study units solely make up the..
study population

What are the two main types of epidemiologic studies?
Observational and Experimental

Observational studies are where the researcher..
observes the study units, makes measurements and make inferences that are limited to descriptions and associations

Experimental studies are where the researcher..
intervenes (experiments) in some way to affect the manner in which the study units(experimental units) respond

In a _____ study, you follow exposed and nonexposed individuals over time
Cohort (prospective)

In a ______ study, you identify a sample of individuals with the disease and without
Casecontrol (retrospective)

